1st Semester






2nd Semester



ZOOLOGY É (Zoological principles and invertebrate Zoology)



3rd Semester








4th Semester








5th Semester









6th Semester










7th Semester







8th Semester







1st Semester

Introduction to Biology

Compulsory - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  3  b) Practicals  3

-The Science of Biology - Âasic Properties of Life (1 hr): Cellular Base of Life. Relation of Structure and Function.
-The Origin and evolution of Life (2 hrs): Theories of Origin and Evolution of Life. Darwinism. Aviogenesis Theory. Simple organic molecules - Polymers. Catalytic properties of RNA.
-The Chemistry of Life (2 hrs): Atoms, bonds and simple molecules. The biological importance of water. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids.
-Energy and Metabolism (2 hrs): Forms of Energy - Energy Transformations. The Laws of Thermodynamics. Free Energy, ATP and cellular work. Enzymes, Enzyme Activation Energy. Cofactors, Inhibitors and Metabolism control.
-Eukaryotic Cells - Structure and Function (7 hrs): Cell Theory. Introduction to principal methods used to study cells. Biological Membranes: Structure and Function. Mitochondrion: Cellular Respiration. Chemiosmosis and the production of ATP. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Golgi Apparatus. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. Cell Nucleus. Cytoskeleton.
-Cell Cycle and Cell Division (2 hrs): Mitosis. Meiosis. Regulators of Cell Cycle Progression.
-Procaryotic microorganisms (2 hrs): Bacteria: Bacterial Conjugation. Viruses, Viral Growth: Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles. DNA and RNA Phages.
-DNA, the genetic material (2 hrs): DNA Structure - Replication.
-From Nucleic acids to Proteins (5 hrs): RNA synthesis (Transcription). Protein Synthesis (Translation), The Genetic Code.
-Mutations (2 hrs): Types of mutations. Mutational Agents and DNA damage, DNA repair.
-Introduction to Genetics (3 hrs): Mendelian Laws. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. Genetic recombination. Gene mapping.
-Recombinant DNA Technology (3 hrs): Restriction enzymes, Cloning. DNA vectors. Selection of transformed cells. Study of Human Genome and Modern Medicine. Subjects of Moral Safety.
-Topics of ecology (6 hrs): The Science of Ecology. Hierarchical levels of Ecological Studies. The Biosphere - structure of the biotic component. The Biodiversity of Planet Earth. Adaptations of organisms to the major environmental factors (light, temperature, salinity…).

1. Light microscopy 2. Cell Division: Mitosis-Meiosis 3. Cellular Respiration - Fermentation 4. Isolation of DNA 5. Blood types 6. Ecology: Plant adaptations to the environmental factors. Animal adaptations to environmental factors.

Lecturers: S. Kouyanou-Koutsoukou, Ass. Professor, (course co-ordinator), V. Aleporou-Marinou, Assoc. Professor, P. Kollia, Ass. Professor, M. Arianoutsou, Assoc. Professor.

Assessment: Combined written examination for both, theoretical and practical sections. The mark of the practical work contributes 30% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 70%.


Compulsory- Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4   b) Practicals  3

1. Introduction (2 h): Subject, aims and importance of Botany. Origin and evolution of plants. Economic importance of plants. Directions of Botanical science.
2. Plant cell (10 h): a) Structure and organization of plant cells, with emphasis in their differences from animal cells. b) Cell cycle.
3. Introduction to Plant Molecular Biology (2 h).
4. Structure and reproduction of (12 h) : Bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, bryophytes, lower vascular plants, gymnosperms.
5. Histology of vascular plants (12 h): Structure, origin, differentiation and function of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, secretory and vascular tissues, and idioblast cell types.
6. Plant organs (12 h): morphology, internal organization, development and function of root, stem, leaf, flower, seed, fruit and seedling.


1. Plant cell - plastids.
2. Vacuolar system - water relations - cytoplasmic inclusions.
3. Structure and organization of the cell wall.
4. Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma.
5. Epidermis, secretory tissue.
6. Vascular tissue.
7. Anatomy of stem.
8. Anatomy of leaf and root.
9. Anatomy of flower, seed, fruit.
10. Structure and reproduction of bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi.
11. Structure and reproduction of algae.
12. Structure and reproduction of bryophytes.

Lecturers :         B. Galatis
P. Apostolakos
C. Katsaros
N. Christodoulakis
K. Haralampidis


The mark of the practical examination contributes 50% to the final mark Passing marks on both theoretical and practical examinations are required.


Compulsory - Credit Units 6

Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  5  b) Practicals  3


  • Purification and analysis of organic compounds (1 hour)

  • Molecular representations, classification and systematic nomenclature (2 hours)

  • Electronic theories (3 hours)

  • Stereochemistry (4 hours)

  • Classification of reagents and reactions. General Mechanisms (4 hours)

  • Spectroscopic methods (3 hours)

  • Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (1 hour)

  • Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (2 hours)

  • Cyclic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (2 hours)

  • Alkyl halides (2 hours)

  • Esters of anorganic acids (1 hour)

  • Organometallic compounds (1 hour)

  • Alcohols-Ethers (2 hours)

  • Carbonyl compounds (4 hours)

  • Sulfur compounds-Nitrogen compounds (5 hours)

  • Carboxylic acids and their derivatives (3 hours)

  • Aromatic character (2 hours)

  • Benzene and their homologs (3 hours)

  • Aromatic compounds with oxygen and sulfur (2 hours)

  • Nitrogen containing aromatic compounds (2 hours)

  • Carbonyl and carboxylic aromatic compounds (3 hours)

  • Fused aromatic compounds-naphtalene (3 hours)

  • Heterocyclic compounds (thiophene, furan, pyrrole, imidazole, pyrimidine, quinoline, purine) (4 hours)

  • Carbohydrates (4 hours)

  • Lipids (2 hours)

  • Aminoacids-Proteins (2 hours)



1. Qualitative Organic Analysis. 2. Separatory methods and purification of organic compounds 3. Purification and separation of liquid compounds. 4. Classification tests of functional groups (double bond, alkyl halides, alcohols) 5. Aldehydes, ketones-carboxylic acids-hydroacids-dicarbonic acids 6. Amines-Phenols-Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid 7. Urea-proteins aminoacids 8. Carbohydrates.

Lecturers: Prof. C. Tsougrakis, Prof. N. Ferderigos, Assoc. Prof. T. Mavromoustakos.

The mark of the practical examination contributes 30% to the final mark.


Compulsory- Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  3  b) Practicals 3

    • Lecture contents:

  1. The components of matter-Quantum theory and atomic structure. (4h)

  2. Chemical periodicity. (4h)

  3. Models of Chemical Bonding. (5h)

  4. Gases and the kinetic-molecular theory. Intermolecular forces: liquids, solids and phase changes. (2h)

  5. Thermochemistry: energy flow and chemical change. (3h)

  6. Chemical Kinetics: rates and mechanisms. (4h)

  7. Properties of mixtures. Solutions and colloids. Acid-Base equilibrium. (2h)

  8. Principles of oxidation-reduction reactions. Electrochemistry - Electrical work. (4h)

  9. Principles of spectroscopy: UV/Vis, IR, NMR, X-ray diffraction analyses. (4h)

  10. Study of the oxygen group, carbon group and nitrogen group. Transition metals as essential dietary trace elements. (4h)

  11. Coordination compounds. Theoretical basis of the bonding and properties of complexes. (3h)


    • Practical contents:

  1. Laboratory safety rules. Basic laboratory techniques. The use of the laboratory balance. Experimental errors. Evaluation of experimental data. The laboratory report.

  2. Preparation and density measurements of solutions.

  3. Principles of chemical Equilibrium. Le Chatelier/s principle.

  4. Salt solubility. The solubility constant concept.

  5. pH. Investigation of buffer systems. pKa.

  6. Complexation measurements. Determination of water hardness.

  7. Thermochemistry: The heat of reaction.

  8. Oxidation - Reduction titrations. Standard half-cell potential. Nernst equation. Laws of electrolysis.

  9. Chemical Kinetics. Rates of reactions.


Lecturers: John Markopoulos, Assoc. Prof.

Knowledge is assessed via examination in theory and practical work (laboratory reports, essays, tests, oral communication or a combination of the above). The mark of the practical work contributes 50% to the final mark Passing marks on both examinations are required.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 5  b) Practicals -


  • Analytic Geometry: Scalar and vector products of vectors. Straight line. Conic sections. Analytic geometry in 3-D space. Applications.

  • Linear Algebra: Elements of algebraic structures. Vector spaces (in particular R2 and R3). Matrices-determinants. Linear systems. Applications.

  • Differential and Integral Calculus: Concept of limit. Concept of derivative. Fundamental theorems of differential calculus. Investigations of functions (maxima-minima, monotonicity, convexity-concavity, asymptotes, etc). L'Hospital rules. Taylor's formula. Applications.

Indefinite Integrals. Basic methods of Integration. Integration of rational functions, certain irrational expressions, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, transcendental functions.
Definite Integrals. The lower and upper integral sums (according Darboux and Riemann). Integrable functions. Properties, theorems. Applications (finding average values of a function, computing areas, etc).

  • Elements of functions with several real variables: Partial derivatives. Differential. Differentiation of composite functions. Applications (gradient, etc).

  • Vector functions of a real variable. Applications.

  • Ordinary differential equations: First order differential equations. Exact differential equations. Linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Linear differential equations of second order with constant coefficients.

  • Applications to Biology, Physics and Chemistry. Elements of error theory. Arithmetic series (elements).

Lecturers: A. Kartsaklis, Lecturer.

2nd Semester


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4  b) Practicals  3

A. Lecture Contents
Mechanics: Forces, Kinetics, Work and Energy, Potential and Kinetic Energy, Conservation of Energy, Momentum, Collisions, Rockets, Rotations, Rotational Momentum and Torque, Equilibrium, Elasticity, Gravity, Fluids, Bernoulli equation, Oscillations.
Wave Physics - Optics: Wave motion, Standing waves, Reflection, Refraction, Huygens principle, Interference, Spectra, Mirrors and Lenses, Lasers.
Thermodynamics: Temperature, Heat, Work, First thermodynamic Law, Kinetic theory, Second thermodynamic Law, Carnot's cycle, Heat machines, Refrigerators, Entropy.
Electromagnetism: Electrical charge, Electric Fields, Gauss' Law, Electrical Potential, Faraday's Law of Induction, Ampere's Law, Maxwell Equations, Alternating Currents.
Nuclear Physics: Atom and Nucleus, Radioactivity, Fission, Fusion, Atomic weapons, Nuclear Plants, Biological effects of radiation, Geiger.

B. Practical Contents
1. Focal length of a lens.
2. Study of light spectra.
3. Laser and light diffraction.
4. Light polarization. Measurement of the molarity of a sugar solution.
5. Study of AC currents with an oscilloscope.
6. Geiger.
7. Measurement of the acceleration of gravity with a simple pendulum.
8. Hooke's law.
9. Electrical resistance measurement with the Wheatstone bridge.
10. Internal friction of fluids.

D. Theodorou Assist. Professor, C. Symeonides Lecturer.


Compulsory - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week: a) Lectures 3  b) Laboratory 4

A. Lecture Contents

  • Basic concepts of chemistry equilibria: Introduction to chemical analysis (1 hour). Solutions and their concentration units (3 hours). Acids, bases, pH and buffer solutions. Equilibria of complex ions. Oxidation - Reduction Systems and electrochemical cells (4 hours).

  • Errors and statistical treatment of analytical data (2 hours).

  • Gravimetric analysis (2 hours): Solubility. Precipitation. Introduction to gravimetric methods.

  • Volumetric analysis (6 hours): Acid-base titrations. Precipitation titrations. Complexometric titrations. Oxidation - Reduction titrations. Acid - base titrations in non-aqueous Solvents.

  • Introduction to Instrumental Analysis. Potentiometry (3 hours): Indicator and Reference Electrodes. Ion-, gas- and enzyme- sensing membrane electrodes. Instruments measuring potential - pH. Direct Potentiometry and Potentiometric Titrations. Electrolytic Methods: Electrogravimetric Analysis, Coulometry. Voltammetry: Polarography, Amperometric titrations.

  • Optical methods of Analysis. Absorption Spectroscopy (4 hours): Principles of Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. UV-VIS spectrophotometers. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Fluorimetry. Chemiluminescence (Instrumentation and Analytical Applications).

  • Atomic Spectroscopy (Instrumentation and Analytical Applications, 3 hours). Emission Spectroscopy: Flame Emission photometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy. Atomic- Absorption Spectroscopy.

  • Introduction to separation methods (4 hours): Extraction. Ion Exchange. Paper Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography. Gas Chromatography. Liquid Column Chromatography. High - Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Affinity Chromatography. Ion Chromatography. Electrophoresis.

  • Special Instrumental Methods of Analysis (4 hours): Enzymatic Analysis. Immunoassays. Mass Spectrometry (MS). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy.

B. Practical Contents
1-3. Volumetric Methods of Analysis:

  • Volumetric determination of acetic acid in vinegar (neutralization)

  • Volumetric determination of acetic aid in aqueous solutions and in vitamin C tablets (iodometry)

  • Volumetric determination of water hardness (complexometric)

4-6. Instrumental Methods of Analysis:

  • Separation and Identification of Metal Ions (Ni, Mn and Co) with Ascending Paper Chromatography

  • Spectrophotometric determination of iron

  • Potentiometric determination of fluoride with a fluoride membrane electrode in aqueous solutions and in toothpaste

Lecturers: E. Lianidou, Associate Professor and H. Archontaki Assistant Professor. E. Bakeas, Lecturer and M. Dousikou Ph.D. participate in the Laboratory Experiments.

The laboratory mark contributes with 25% to the total course mark. Only students that have finished successfully the laboratory experiments (with a mark ³ 5/10) have the right to participate in the course final exam.

(Zoological principles and invertebrate Zoology)

Compulsory - Credit Units 5

Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4  b) Practicals  3



Introduction to the living animals

Biological principles, the science of Zoology, origin and chemistry of life, cells as units of life, cell physiology.


Continuity and animal Evolution

A review of genetic principles, Darwinian evolutionary theory and its revisions, micro- and macroevolution.


Reproduction and development

Process of gametogenesis, types of reproduction, reproductive systems, fertilization, embryonic development, vertebrate development, development of systems and organs.

Architectural pattern, Classification and Phylogeny
Hierarchical organization of animal complexity, types of tissues, body plans, Linnaeus and Classification, taxonomic characters and theories, major divisions of the animal Kingdom.

Protozoans and invertebrate phyla: External and internal morphology, reproduction and development, specific features and Classification
Protozoa, Mesozoa and Parazoa, radiate animals, acoelomate and  pseudocoelomate animals, Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda (Trilobita, Chelicerata, Crustacea, Uniramia), lesser protostomians, lophophorate phyla, Echinodermata, Chaetognatha and Hemichordata.

1. Embryology of the sea urchin. 2. Histology (epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue). 3. Protozoans (Sarcomastigophora and Cilliophora), living Cilliophora, staining. 4. Porifera and Cnidaria (microscopic and macroscopic study). 5. Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Annelida (microscopic and macroscopic study, polychaete anatomy). 6. Mollusca (representatives of molluscan taxa, cuttlefish anatomy).  7. Chelicerata, Chilopoda, Diplopoda (body plan, appendages). 8. Crustacea (Norway lobster: body plan, appendages, anatomy). 9. Crustacea and Insecta (identification of various groups using keys). 10. Insecta (body plan, appendages). 11. Echinodermata (representatives of echinoderm classes, sea urchin anatomy). 12. Invertebrate collection and identification (field and laboratory work).


Lecturers: M. Thessalou-Legaki, Assoc. Professor (Co-ordinator),  A. Nicolaidou, Professor, A. Legakis Assist. Professor,  Krikoni-Kyritsi (Special Teaching Staff), Galenou (Special Teaching Staff).
The mark of the practical examination contributes 40% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 60%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


  • Elementary concepts and principles of Taxonomy and Biosystematics (2 hrs): Main terms and concepts. The necessity of Taxonomy.

  • The progress in Taxonomy (2 hrs): Systems of Taxonomy. Classic and new taxonomic systems.


  • Taxonomic sources (6 hrs): Structural information. Chemical information. Molecular information. Information from Plant Geography and Ecology.

  • Taxonomy in practice (7 hrs): Classification. Taxonomic tools and implementation (Identification Keys, Codes of Nomenclature, Herbaria, Culture Collections, Databases).


  • Biodiversity (5 hrs): Evolution. Speciation. Major groups of organisms related to plants.

  • Prokaryotic organisms (4 hrs): Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic criteria, systematics, phylogeny, ecology. Representative families, genera and species.


  • Eukaryotic algae (1) (5 hrs): Chlorophyta. Morphology, life cycles, taxonomic criteria, systematics, phylogeny, ecology. Representative families, genera and species.

  • Eukariotic algae (2) (5hrs): Euglenophyta, Xanthophyta, Chrysophyta, Bacillariophyta, Pyrrophyta, Cryptophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyceae. Morphology, life cycles, systematics, phylogeny, ecology. Representative genera.


  • Fungi - Lichens (4 hrs): Morphological characters, reproduction, taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, representative genera.

  • Bryophyta and Pteridophyta (5 hrs): Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, subdivision, class, subclass).


  • Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae - Angiospermae) (12 hrs): Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, subdivision, class, subclass). Representative genera.

1. Taxonomic tools and their use. 2. Prokaryotic organisms, diatoms, dinoflagellates: morphological characters of representative genera under light microscope. 3. Chlorophyta, charophyta, phaeophyceae, rhodophyta. Morphological characters of representative genera under light microscope and stereoscope. 4. Fungi-Lichens. Macro- and microscopic characters and identification of representative genera in the main groups. 5. Bryophyta, Pteridophyta. Observation and identification of characteristic representatives. 6. Gymnospermae. Observation and identification of characteristic representatives. 7. Angiospermae. Taxonomic characters (flowers, inflorescences, fruits). Survey of Dicotyledones and Monocotyledones (comparative morphology). Observation and identification of characteristic representatives, use of identification keys. 8. Angiospermae. Use of identification keys in representative Angiosperms. 9. Angiospermae. The karyotype as a taxonomic tool.

Collection and identification of representative plants.

Lecturers: A. Economou-Amilli Prof., B. Montesanto Assist. Prof., A. Pantazidou Assist. Prof., E. Kapsanaki-Gotsi Lecturer, Z. Gonou-Zagou Research Fellow.


The mark of the practical work contributes 25% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 75%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.



Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


History and Applications of Biochemistry

Amino-acids. Chemical composition-Isolation

Peptides. (Amino acid sequence determination)

General principles of protein structure

Levels of protein organization and folding

Methods of protein purification and characterization

Enzyme chemical nature

Enzyme action - Mechanism - Enzyme activity modulators

Principles of enzyme kinetics

Enzyme classification and nomenclature

Lysozyme mechanism of action - Carboxypeptidase - Ribonuclease

Coenzymes. Prosthetic groups

Coenzymes used in oxidation / reduction reactions

Transport of chemical groups - Energetics

Adenosine triphosphate as coenzyme in group transfer

Nucleic acids - structure and function

Biosynthesis of nucleotides - Regulation

Recombinant DNA - Cloning

DNA Replication


Post-transcriptional regulation


Post-translational regulation



1. pH. pH indicators. Preparation of buffer solutions. Amino acid titration curves

3 hours

2. Photometry

3 hours

3. Amino-acids

3 hours

4. Proteins

3 hours

5. Enzymes

3 hours

6. Enzyme Kinetics

3 hours

Coordinator: Vassilacopoulou Dido, Assistant Professor
Lecturers: Fragoulis EG, Professor & Vassilacopoulou D, Assistant Professor


Theory and practicals are examined together.The mark of the practical examination contributes 20% to the final mark.

3rd Semester


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


    • INTRODUCTION: STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS - CELLULAR ORGANIZATION: Origin and evolution of organisms. Structural elements - from biomolecules to cells. Bonds of structural elements and biomolecules. Cellular organization. Historical flashback of Biology of the Cell. The status of Biology of the Cell among Biosciences. (3 hours)

    • ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION OF A MODEL CELLULAR SYSTEM: Dynamics of cellular structure and function. Structure and function of representative cell types. Ultrastructural analysis of cellular organization. (1 hour)

    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Light Microscopy. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM). Historical flashback of Microscopy. Immunofluorescence. Autoradiography. Cellular fractionation. Electrophoresis. Western immunoblotting. Chromatography. Lectins. Informatics and Biology of the Cell. (4 hours)

    • BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES - SEPARATIVE FUNCTIONAL DOUBLE LAYERS: Components of biological membranes. Fluidity and regulation of fluidity in organisms. Specialized methodology. Properties of biological membranes. Models describing the structure and function of biological membranes. Specialized membrane systems. (6 hours)

    • FIRST STAIR OF THE FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION: LEVELS OF DNA ORGANIZATION: Coding, storage - packaging and decoding of genetic information. Nucleus, nucleolus and chromosomal components. Nuclear envelope, nuclear skeleton and nuclear pores. Human Genome Project (HGP). (4 hours)

    • SECOND STAIR OF INFORMATION FLOW: SYNTHESIS OF PROTEINS: Protein synthesis. The prokaryotic ribosome. The eukaryotic ribosome. Mechanisms of protein synthesis. Simultaneous translation of an mRNA transcript from multiple ribosomes. (4 hours)

    • CELLULAR ORGANELLES PRODUCING AND CONVERTING ENERGY: MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS: Morphology, composition and function of mitochondria. Structure - Function relationships. Morphology, composition and function of chloroplasts. Origin and distribution of their components. Semi-autonomy of structure and function. Information flow - Transcription and Translation. (2 hours)

    • ORGANELLES PROCESSING AND DEGRADING BIOMOLECULES: PEROXISOMES AND LYSOSOMES: Morphology and function of peroxisomes. Morphology and function of lysosomes. Participation of lysosomes in the process of pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Contribution of lysosomes in cellular function. (2 hours)

    • CELLULAR FIBRILS - CYTOSKELETON: Microfilaments. Actin participation in cellular mechanisms of movement. Intermediate Filaments (IF). Characteristic types, intracellular organization and distribution of Intermediate Filaments. Microtubules, nucleation mechanisms. Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs). The role of microtubules in mitosis. Cilia and flagella. The Actin-Myosin system. Proteins of thick and thin myofibrils. Interactions of myofibrils with extracellular matrix. Filaments and cellular shape. Microvilli. (4 hours)

    • SELF - ASSEMBLY, SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES - VIRUSES - PHAGES: Assembly of macromolecules - supramolecular structures - viruses and phages. Protein self-assembly. Self-assembly of viruses and phages. Lytic and lysogenic cycle of bacteriophages. (4 hours)

    • CELLULAR COMMUNICATION AND CONJUNCTION: Morphological manifestation of communication: Cellular junctions. Communication junctions. Occluding junctions. Anchoring junctions. Cellular adherence. Chemotaxis. (4 hours)

    • EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX: Components, organization and functions of extracellular material. Collagens and elastins. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins of multiple adhesion. Basement membrane. Supramolecular structure of extracellular components. (4 hours)

    • CELL CYCLE - REPRODUCTION: Cell growth and division. Interphase. Cell cycle regulation during interphase. Cell cycle progression and the distinct restriction - check points. Regulation of the cell cycle check points. Mitosis and cytokinesis. Mechanisms controlling mitosis. Meiosis. Stages of the meiotic divisions I and II. (4 hours)

    • PRINCIPLES OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION: Role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction. Classification of biological signals. Growth Factors (GFs). Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Role of signal transduction in cellular differentiation and development. (2 hours)



1. Cellular fractionation - determination of mitochondrial enzyme activities. 2. Isolation of red cell (erythrocyte) membranes - Osmosis. 3. Analysis of membrane proteins by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 4. Isolation and observation of polytene chromosomes. 5. - 6. Study of cellular function by autoradiography. 7. Ultrastructural study of cellular components by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). 8. Ultrastructural analysis of cellular organization in electron micrographs.

Lecturers: L. H. Margaritis, Professor; I. S. Papassideri, Associate Professor; D. J. Stravopodis, Assistant Professor; N. Messini - Nikolaki, Lecturer.

The mark of the practical work contributes 30% to the final mark. The practical mark results from the examination performed during the exercise hours and written quiz (exercises 7 and 8).


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3




Concepts of Thermodynamics.


Central pathways of energy metabolism.


Carbohydrates: Chemical structure and general reactions.




Regulation of glycolysis.




Pentose phosphate pathway.


Metabolism of major non-glucose sugars.


Metabolism of oligo- and polysaccharides.


Regulation of glycogen metabolism.


The Citric Acid Cycle.


Amino-acid and protein metabolism.


Biological membranes.


Membrane transport.




Lipid metabolism.


Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation.


Hormones - General principle and mode of action.


General regulation and interactions in the intermediate metabolism.






Transamination - Paper chromatography.


Determination of DNA chemical components.


Qualitative determination of simple sugars. Hydrolysis of starch.


Quantitative determination of reductive sugars. Km determination of â-fructofuranosidase.


Lipid hydrolysis.


Study of oxidation/reduction enzymes.


Coordinator: Diamantis C Sideris, Assist. Professor
Lecturers: Fragoulis EG, Professor & Sideris DC, Assistant Professor


The mark of the practical section of the course accounts for 20% of the final mark. Practical and theory sections of the course are examined together.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5

Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4  b) Practicals  3



  • Introduction - Chordates (2 hours)

  • Urochordata, Cephalochordata (2 hours)

      External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specifics adaptations and Taxonomy

  • Fishes (5 hours),

      External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specific adaptations and Taxonomy

  • Amphibians (1 hours),

      External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specific adaptations and Taxonomy

  • Reptiles (2 hours),

      External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specific adaptations and Taxonomy

  • Birds (2 hours)

      External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specific adaptations and Taxonomy

  • Mammals (4 hours)

      External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specific adaptations and Taxonomy

  • Support and movement (2 hours)

            Skeletal systems. Animals motion.

  • Homeostasis (2 hours)

           Osmotic regulation, excretion, thermoregulation.

  • Internal liquids and respiration (3 hours)

            Blood compounds, circulation, respiration.

  • Digestion and nutrition (2 hours)

            Mechanisms of food intake, digestive system, dietary requirements.

  • Neural coordination (3 hours)

            Neural cells and synapses, neural system evolution, sensory organs.

  • Chemical coordination (2 hours)

            Hormone action in Vertebrates and invertebrates.

  • Immunity (2 hours)

            Defence mechanisms, antigens, immunity in Vertebrates.

  • Animal behaviour (2 hours)

            Principles of ethology,  behaviour control, social behaviour.

  • Biosphere and animal distribution (2 hours)

  • Animal ecology (2 hours)



The following are taught at each laboratory session: taxonomy, internal and external morphology features (systems: digestive, circulatory, genetic, etc.), Biological Cycle, Ecology and Identification keys. Furthermore, the most important representatives of each group are presented.

1. Urochordata and Cephalochordata. 2. Actinopterygii (anatomy) 3. Fishes taxonomy. 4-5. Amphibia - Reptilia: Taxonomy. 6. Aves (anatomy). 7. Aves (taxonomy). 8. Mammalia (anatomy). 9. Sensory organs Aves - Mammals.

Lecturers: G. Verriopoulos Professor, P. Megalofonou Lecturer, R. Polymeni Lecturer.
V. Krikoni-Kiritsi Special Teaching Staff participates in the Laboratory Experiments.

The mark of the practical work contributes 40% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 60%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


  • Introduction (2 h)

  • Photosynthesis (10 h)

Light reactions (photosynthetic pigments, light harvesting complexes, photorespiration - photooxidation). Carbon fixation and reduction - C3 cycle (Rubisco, biochemical reactions, cycle regulation). Oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle - C2 cycle. Carbon dioxide concentrating-systems (aquatic plants, C4 photosynthesis, Crassulacean acid metabolism). Photosynthetic control (compensation point and the effects of light, CO2 and O2, the role of temperature).

  • Nitrogen, sulfur and secondary product metabolism (4 h)

Nitrogen cycle. Biological nitrogen fixation. Nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation. Sulfate cycle, sulphur uptake, transport and assimilation. Secondary metabolism and biotechnology.

  • Water, ion and solute transport (16 h)

Water structure and properties. Mechanisms of water transport (short and long distance transport of water- diffusion, osmosis, and mass flow). Plant water relations and environment - Water transport from soil through plant to the atmosphere - transpiration and water stress.
Mineral nutrition - Ion uptake and transport. Rhizosphere. Ion transport in roots. Mechanisms of water and ion transport across membranes.
Translocation of biomolecules in the phloem. Phloem loading and unloading. Mechanism of translocation in the phloem (the pressure flow model). Lateral transport.

  • Hydraulic lift (2 h)

        Physiology of development (12 h)
Growth - Differentiation - Development. Growth kinetics and mathematical models. Control of development - plant hormones (classes of plant growth regulators and their characteristics). Control of development - light (photomorphogenesis and phototropism, phytochrome and other photoreceptors). Plant movements and biological rhythms. Seed germination and seedling development. Flowering and photoperiodism. Fruit ripening, leaf abscission and senescence.

  • Plant Physiology and biodiversity conservation (2 h)

  • Introduction to stress physiology (2 h)

  • Introduction to molecular plant physiology (2 h)

          1. Mineral nutrition. 2. Plastid pigments. 3. Photosynthesis. 4. Respiration. 5. Nitrogen metabolism. 6. Transpiration. 7. Plant tissue water relations. 8. Seed germination and dormancy. 9. Light and plant development. 10. Plant hormones and growth. 11. Phototropism.

Lecturers:  C.G. Spyropoulos, Assc. Prof. (coordinator)
C.A. Thanos, Assc. Prof.
Ê. Georghiou, Ass. Prof.
S. Rhizopoulou, Ass. Prof.
M.S. Meletiou-Christou, Lecturer
K. Haralampidis, Lecturer

Thepractical mark contributes 50%, to the final course mark but a passing mark is required for both practicals and theory. The  practical mark is obtained from separate practical exams.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3


Introduction to Biological Anthropology. Science, Evolution and Religion. The evidence of evolution. Population Genetics (Microevolution, Evolutionary forces). The Origin and the Evolution of species. Summary of the History of Life. The Diversity, Microevolution and Adaptation of human populations. Our Place in Nature. The Characteristics of the Primates, The Biology and Behaviour of the living Primates. The living Apes. The Human Species.  Fossilization and dating. The Evolution of Primates. The Origin of Man - Bipedal locomotion. The early Homo (phylogenesis of the first hominids), The Lower and Middle Pleistocene hominids, The Archaic Homo sapiens. The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH), Theories for the origins of AMH. Human Biology and Cultural Change.


1. Skeletal Biology (anatomy, growth of human skeleton). 2. Sex determination from the skeleton. 3. Estimation of age of death from the skeleton. 4. Paleodemography. 5. Human Diversity I (biometry, biological distances). 6. Human Diversity II (epigenetic non metric traits). 7. Modern human phenotypic diversity. 8. Dermatoglyphics. 9. Simulation of the Evolutionary forces. 10. Hominid structure and function (bipedal locomotion). 11. The Primate Anatomy. 12. The early hominids. 13. The later hominids.

Lecturers: Dr. Sotiris K. Manolis, Assistant Professor

The practical mark resulting from separate examinations contributes 20% to the final mark of the course. Passing marks are required in both practical and theoretical exams.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3


INTRODUCTION (6 hours): Preliminary lectures on histology (3 systems of plant tissues) and secretory structures.
Root (4-5 hours): Apex organization (theories), tissue differentiation, hormone movement, lateral roots, gravitropism, and peculiarities. Environmental factors and root structure.
Shoot (7-8 hours): Root apex structure and organization, primary and secondary development, gravitropical bending, xylem and phloem analysis, phylogenetical and ecophysiological evaluation of the secondary conductive element architecture. The shoot and the environmental pressures.
Leaf (4-6 hours): Leaf meristems. Development of simple and composite leaves. Epidermal tissue and leaf development. Epidermis and the effect of light. Mesophyll and the fine structure of the photosynthetic tissues. Structure - environment relations. Evaporation, transpiration and the photosynthetic efficiency of various chlorenchymatic tissues in special plant types (C4, xeromorphic etc). Peculiarities. The effect of air pollution, acid rain and ionizing radiation on the leaf structure.
Secretory structures (2 hours): Secretion and the factors that induce it. Secretory structures and products. Their significance for the contemporary medicine and pharmaceutical industry.
Flower (4 hours): Structure of the flower, anatomical modifications during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state (experimental approach), the effect of photoperiod in blooming and gametogenesis. The flower and the environment.
Fruit (2 hours): Fruit development and seed impact, curves and growing conditions, plant hormones - parthenocarpy. Abscission and seed dispersal. Structure and development of various fruits. Fruits, yield and biotechnology.
Embryo (1 hour): Fertilization and embryogenesis in mono- and di-cotyledons, fine structure of the embryo.
Seed (2 hours): Development and maturation. From dormancy to germination: embryo and seedling, reserve and protective tissues, imbibition, transpiration and light as factors affecting germination. Seed coat and endosperm in various types of seeds.

1. Fixation techniques - microphotography
2. Epidermis - stomata - epidermal peeling, paradermal sectioning
3. Secretory structures
4. Root anatomy
5. Gravitropism
6. Apical meristems
7. Shoot anatomy
8. Secondary xylem - architecture of
9. Leaf anatomy - adaptations
10. Flower, micro- êáé macro- sporiogenesis
11. Fruit, seed and embryo

Lecturers: Dr. N.S. Christodoulakis, Ass. Professor

The practical mark resulting from separate examinations contributes 50% to the final mark of the course. Passing marks are required in both practical and theoretical exams.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3

  • Lecture Contents


    • Introduction (4 h.): Fossil, fossilization. Paleoichnology. Facies. The importance of fossils. Paleontological methods. Chronology of strata by fossils. Geological time scale (Stratigraphy).

    • Paleoecology - Taphonomy (4 h.): Theories and evolution implications. Fossil records in the geological time-scale. Mass extinction events.

    • Invertebrate Paleontology (4 h): Porifera (sponges). Cnidarians (corals). Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Brachiopods. Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.

    • Molluscs (6 h.): Placophorans-Scaphopoda-Bivalvia-Gastropoda: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea-Ammonoidea: Classification, paleoecology, suture morphology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.  Belemnitoidea: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.

    • Echinoderms (3 h.): Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Arthropods: Cirripedia. Trilobites: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Graptolites: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.

    • Vertebrate Paleontology (6 h.): History. Evolution (Darwin, Cuvier, Gould etc.). Mechanisms, Micro-Macro Evolution. Evolution of Vertebrates: Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals. Origin, Classification and Diversity of Vertebrates.

    • Mammals (4 h.): Classification, Evolution through time of Equidae, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Rodentia. MN zonation. Mammal faunas in Greece.

    • Paleoanthropology (3h.): Primates, Hominoids, Hominids.

Australopithecines, Homo, a. Homo sapiens, a.m. Homo sapiens.

  • Paleobotany (5 h.): Evolution of plants. Research methods. The fossil flaura of Greece.


  • Practical Contents

  • Methods of collecting and preserving fossils. Fossils in the Lab. and in the Museum. Description, classification and nomenclature of fossils.

  •  Morphological study of fossil: sponges, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves. Genera and species from Greece.

  • Morphological study of: ammonites, nautilus, belemnites from the general fossil record and Greece.

  • Morphological study of: echinoderms, balanus, trilobites, graptolites.

  • Study of: fossil vertebrate skulls and postcranial. Mammal dentition. Fossil Greek mammal faunas.

  • Study of: fossil skulls and postcranial of Primates and hominids.

  • Study of fossil plants from Greek flauras.


Lecturers: E. Koskeridou, Lecturer.

4th Semester


Compulsory - Credit Units 6

Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 5  b) Practicals 3

A. Lecture Contents
Introduction to Genetics: Mendelian Genetics, independent assortment, complete/incomplete dominance, dihybrid and multihybrid crosses, statistical analysis, gene interaction - epistasis, interactions between more than two genes, deviations from standard F2 results. Multiple alleles.
Sex determination and inheritance of sex linked genes.
DNA replication: Mechanisms, model-organisms, genes.
Mutation: Point mutations, frameshift mutations, irradiation-induced and chemical mutagenesis, molecular mechanisms of induction, repair, effects, lethal genes.
Recombination: Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping (Drosophila, Ascomycetes, Plants, H. sapiens). Models of recombination and molecular mechanisms, gene conversion.
Genetic code: Composition, effects
Gene function and regulation: Gene structure, complementation models, gene function, promoters-regulators-inducers, operons, regulation.
Cytogenetics: Chromosomal rearrangements, additions, deletions, duplications and translocations in plants, animals and microorganims. Changes in chromosome number, aneuploidy, polyploidy.
Quantitative and Population Genetics
Extrachromosomal Inheritance
Environment and Inheritance

B. Practical Contents:
Dihybrid and multihybrid crosses with Drosophila melanogaster mutants:
Sex determination, epistasis, gene interaction, linkage, mapping (3 wks).
Gene interactions -epistasis with cobs of Zea mays (1 wk).
Human chromosomes, chromosome alterations, karyotyping, detection of chromosomal anomalies (1 wk).
Mapping of ordered and unordered tetrads in Sordaria fimicola (1 wk).
Mutagenesis and repair mechanisms in bacteria. Antibiotic resistance and study of mechanisms in bacteria (3 wks).
Mutagenesis and production of auxotrophs and morphological mutations in fungi (Aspergillus nidulans) (2 wks).
Population genetics [Hardy-Weinberg, gene frequencies and equilibrium] (1 wk).


Lecturers: M.A. Typas (course co-ordinator ), K. Komitopoulou, K. Lamnisou, K.M. Pappas.

The mark of the practical work contributes 30% to the final mark and the theory examination 70%. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3
Coordinator: Rena Lecanidou, Assoc. Professor
Lecturers: Rena Lecanidou, Associate Professor (26 hours)
Sonia Tsitilou, Assistant Professor (12 hours)
George C. Rodakis, Associate Professor (12 hours)

  • Lecture Contents:

  • Structure and properties of DNA and RNA (7 hours): Denaturation, renaturation and reassociation of DNA. Hybridization of nucleic acids. Superhelical DNA and topoisomerases. Bacterial and eukaryotic chromosomes. Nucleosomes, active chromatin. Genome size versus organism complexity. Repetitive DNA. The genetic material of viruses and bacteriophages.

  • Recombinant DNA technology (10 hours): Restriction endonucleases. DNA ligation. DNA mapping using restriction endonucleases. Cloning, cloning vectors. Identification and characterization of specific DNA sequences, probes, Southern and Northern blots. DNA sequencing methods. PCR method and applications. Whole genome sequencing research programs.

  • DNA replication (9 hours): Protein factors and enzymes of replication. Mechanisms of DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. DNA replication in bacteriophages and viruses.


  • Transcription (5 hours): Transcription enzymes. Promoter sequences. The mechanism of transcription in prokaryotic organisms. Transcriptional processing. Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes-the lactose operon.

  • Transcription in Eykaryotic Organisms (7 hours): Transcription factors. Processing of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. Introduction to the control of transcription.


  • Protein biosynthesis (translation of mRNA) (12 hours): The genetic code, wobble effect, repression, origin and evolution of genetic code. The mechanism of protein biosynthesis. Structure and function of tRNA. Structure and function of ribosomes. The role of ribosomal RNA.

  • Practical Contents:

1. Isolation of total DNA from animal tissue. 2. Isolation of total RNA from animal tissue. 3. Bacterial transformation using recombinant plasmids. 4. Isolation of recombinant plasmid DNA. 5. Electrophoretic analysis of DNA using agarose gels. 6. DNA mapping using restriction endonucleases.

The mark  of the practicals accounts for 20% of the final mark. Practical and theory sections of the course are examined together.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


  • Introduction, aim and historical review (2 hours)

  • Structure and function of the nervous system (18 hours):

Nerve Tissue: Neurons and neuroglia.
Neurophysiology: Resting potential, action potential, mechanism of action potential generation, synapses, neurotransmitters, mechanism of synaptic transmission, receptors.
Structure and gross anatomy of the nervous system: Central nervous system, spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, blood supply to brain, blood brain barrier, cerebrospinal fluid, brain metabolism.
Sensory Systems: General and special senses.
Higher brain functions: Memory, learning, language consciousness and Behavior.

  • Endocrine system (6 hours): Regulatory mechanisms, mechanisms of hormone function, hypothalamus, pituitary, peripheral glands.

  • Motor muscle, structure and function (4 hours): Role of calcium, regulatory mechanisms, mechanical properties of the diverse muscle types, energetics of muscle contraction.

  • Circulatory system (6 hours): Structure, regulatory mechanisms. Hemodynamics, blood, vertebrate circulatory system.

  • Respiratory system (2 hours): Regulatory mechanisms, main functions, organization of the respiratory system.

  • Mammalian excretory system (6 hours): Structure and function of the kidney and the nephron. Regulation of water and ion excretion.

  • Immune system (2 hours): General organization. Organs and cells mediating immune mechanisms. Innate immunity. Specific immunity.

  • Energy metabolism (4 hours): Mechanisms of regulation, mammalian digestive system. Nutrition and absorption.

  • Thermoregulation (2 hours): Regulatory mechanisms of specific adaptation.


1. Properties of nerves.
2. Nerve and neuron simulation.
3. Study of the mechanical properties of muscles : a) skeletal muscle, b) smooth muscle.
4. Energy supply for muscle contraction, kinases of phosphogens, lactate dehydrogenase.
5. Hormone effects on liver glycogen and blood glucose.
6. Effect of food starvation on liver metabolism.
7. Osmoregulation.
8. Respiration.
9. Properties of cardiac muscle : in vivo and during perfusion in vitro.
10. Cell components of the blood, red blood cell hemolysis, hematological parameters.
11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plasma proteins, determination of plasma and blood volume.
12. Saturation curve of hemoglobin.
13. Mammalian digestive enzymes.
14. Intestinal glucose absorption.

Lecturers: Is. Beis, Professor; C. Gaitanaki, Associate Professor; E. Valakos, Assistant Professor; S. Efthimiopoulos, Associate Professor; P. Papazafiri, Assistant Professor; O. Tsitsilonis, Assistant Professor.

The mark of the practical work contributes 20% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 80%. Passing marks in both examinations are required.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3

A. Lecture Contents
Introduction: Ecology and its objectives. The global environment.
Corresponding the living organisms with their environment. The abiotic environment and living entities. Biogeography.
Fundamental concepts and principles of Ecology: Habitat. The niche concept. Limiting factors. The holistic environment.
Biodiversity: Levels of biological diversity. The role of the biodiversity and its importance.
Community: The concept of community. Composition. Spatial organization. Organization in time. Succession. Stability. Diversity of communities. Ecological gradients. Classification and ordination of communities.
Ecosystem: Flow of energy. The biotic component. Feedback mechanisms. Biogeochemical cycles. Major environmental problems related to the biogeochemical cycles.
The diversity of the Planet Earth - Biomes
Terrestrial Ecosystems: Diversity of terrestrial biomes. Characteristics. Stratification. Growth forms. Life forms. Soil types and terrestrial ecosystems. Climatic types and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeographical areas. Major terrestrial biomes (rain forests, deciduous forests, coniferous forests, savanna, grasslands, deserts, tundra, and Mediterranean climate ecosystems). Major environmental problems. Conservation and management of terrestrial ecosystems.
Aquatic Ecosystems: Structure and function of aquatic biomes. Fresh water ecosystems (lakes, rivers). Lagoons. Coastal and Pelagic systems. Major environmental problems. Conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems.
Environmental Biotechnology

B. Practical Contents

  • Vertical and horizontal vegetation structure, plant life forms (field)

  • Plant phenology (field)

  • Sampling methods in plant communities: minimum sampling area, minimum sampling units (field)

  • Analysis of plant community structure (frequency, abundance, density, diversity) (field)

  • Methods of sampling soil animals (field)

  • Soil profile. Types of soil organic horizon (field)

  • Soil decomposers activity (field & laboratory)

  • Simulation of thermal stratification in lakes (laboratory)

  • Structure of marine algae communities (field)

  • Diversity of soil fungi (laboratory)

  • Waste water sewage treatments (BOD, COD) (laboratory)

Lecturers: Margarita Arianoutsou - Faragitaki, Assoc. Professor (coordinator); A. Economou-Amili, Professor; B. Montesanto, Ass. Proffesor; I. Bitis, Lecturer.
The reports in the practical exercises contribute to the final mark by 20%. Similarly, the passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises contributes to the final mark by 20%.

Elective - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


       Introduction (1 h)


       Plant hormones (14 h): Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, polyamines (biosynthesis, metabolism, signal transduction, mechanism of action).


       Carbohydrate metabolism (7 h): Regulation mechanisms of biosynthetic and metabolic pathways (starch, sucrose, cellulose and galactomannan degradation). The central role of the hexose phosphate pool. Balance between sucrose and starch synthesis. Modulation of gene expression by sucrose. Energy and reducing power supply for biosynthesis.


       Nitrogen metabolism (9 h): Amino acid metabolism, non protein amino acids, ureides. Interactions between photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism. Storage proteins, storage protein biosynthesis during seed development, protein bodies, mobilization of stored protein reserves in germinating seeds. Plant proteins and human nutrition.


       Lipid metabolism (9 h): Structure and function of plant lipids. Fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis. Membrane lipids, membrane lipid biosynthesis, membrane lipid biosynthesis in plastids and endoplasmic reticulum. Effect of environmental factors on plant lipid and fatty acid composition. Membrane lipid function in signalling and in defensive processes. Waxes, cutin, suberin. Metabolism of storage lipids, triacylglycerol biosynthesis, oil bodies, mobilization of storage lipids in germinating seeds, â-oxidation, glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis. Industrial applications of plant lipids, improvement of oil quality.


       Secondary metabolism (7 h): Introduction. Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Phenylpropanoids - Biosynthetic pathways. Biotechnological applications. Secondary metabolism in response to abiotic stress (oxidative stress, heavy metals, UV, wounding).


       Metabolism and phytopathology (3 h)



















1. Action of gibberellic acid (GA3) in á-amylase synthesis in the aleurone cells of wheat (Triticumaestivum var. capeiti) germinating seeds. The role of abscisic acid (ÁÂÁ). 2. Time course of á-galactosidase activity and endosperm galactomannan content during germination of fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecumL.) seeds. 3. Quantitative determination of sucrose and reducing sugars in the embryos of germinating fenugreek seeds. 4. Quantitative determination of total nitrogen during leaf development of LaurusnobilisL. 5. Storage lipid mobilization in the cotyledons of Citrulluslanatus,during seedling growth. 6. Determination of fatty acid composition of Citrulluslanatus cotyledons, during seedling growth, using gas chromatography. 7. Analysis of essential oils from leaves of LaurusnobilisL.

Lecturers: C.G. Spyropoulos (coordinator), Associate Professor
M.S. Meletiou-Christou, Lecturer
K. Haralampidis, Lecturer

The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 50% to the final mark. Passing marks in both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 3
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3


  • Basic concepts and theorems in Probability Theory (events, probabilities, random variables, distributions and moments) (7 hours).

  • Descriptive Statistics (population, sample mean, sample variance, median, quantiles, graphic representations of data) (7 hours).

  • Estimation, statistical tests and confidence intervals for the basic parameters of a population (7 hours).

  • Linear regression (6 hours).

  • Applications using statistical software (12 hours).

Lecturers: F. Siannis, Lecturer


Elective - Credit Units 3
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3



  1. Introduction to Education (clarification of fundamental concepts and areas in Education). Developmental concepts in Pedagogy during recent centuries. Contemporary issues and trends in Education. Globalization and Education.

  2. Learning theories. Critical analysis of representative theories of learning and their educational implications (behavioristic theories, cognitive theories - Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky etc. - Gestalt theories, Humanistic theories - Rogers, Maslow, etc.). Learning transfer, Learning factors.

  3. Teaching methodology. Goals and objectives in education. Teaching principles. Teaching methods and strategies. Stages and phases for instruction. Teaching media. Evaluation of instruction.

  4. Practice teaching. Class observation in secondary schools. Completion of observation schedules and indexes.


Lecturers: M. Kassotakis, Professor

5th Semester


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3

A. Lecture Contents
Population organization: Population features. Spatial arrangement. Diversity. Social organization. Distribution (4 hrs)
Population structure: Size and Density of a population (2 hrs)
Population growth: Biotic potential. Intrinsic growth rate. Life tables. Age classes and distribution. Mathematical models (10 hrs)
Populations' interactions: Competition. Predation and parasitism. Mutualism. Mathematical models (10 hrs)
Population regulation: Oscillations in population size. Factors regulating population size. Density dependent and density independent population regulation. Self-regulation. Demographic strategies. (2 hrs)
Population evolution: Evolutionary strategies and adaptations of populations. Diversity and stability of populations (6 hrs)
Human populations: Structure and growth. Interactions with the environment (8 hrs)

B. Practical Contents

  • Spatial arrangement of plant populations (field).

  • Interspecific competition of plants (laboratory).

  • Intraspecific competition of plant species (field).

  • Structure of soil fauna populations: abundance, frequency, spatial distribution (field & laboratory).

  • Structure of soil fauna populations: diversity, index of similarity (field & laboratory).

  • Biotic interactions of fungi (laboratory).

  • Growth rate analysis in aquatic invertebrates (laboratory).

  • Predation of algae by invertebrates (laboratory).

Lecturers: Margarita Arianoutsou - Faragitaki, Assoc. Professor (Coordinator); D. Danielides, Ass. Professor; I. Bitis, Lecturer; A. Parmakelis, Lecturer.

The reports in the practical exercises contribute to the final mark by 20%. Similarly, the passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises contributes to the final mark by 20%. Optional seminars organized by the students and presented to the class may provide a credit up to 1 grade.


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3

1. Introduction to Microbiology (10 hours): Microorganisms, Microbiology and Microbiologists. Brief historical evolution of Microbiology. The impact of microorganisms on humans, animals and plants on Earth.  Biochemistry of microbial cell. The evolution of microorganisms and their position in the living world. Microbial taxonomy. Differentiation. Prokaryotic cell. Eukaryotic cell (The paradigms of yeasts and filamentous fungi, the eukaryotic membrane, protein topogenesis and dynamic trafficking, transporters and channels, fungal differentiation, asexual and sexual life cycles, dimorphism, mating types).
2. The biology of viruses and plasmids (8 hours): General review on viruses and plasmids. Bacterial viruses: bacteriophages or phages. Plant and animal viruses. Transposons and other mobile elements, viruses and plasmids. Basic principles of oncogenesis. AIDS virus. The molecular basis of symbioses. Classification of viruses. Viroids.
3. Microbial Nutrition (biochemistry and metabolism of microorganisms) (4 hours): Nutritional requirements of microorganisms. Categories of microorganisms according to their nutritional requirements. Microbiological media.
4. Microbial growth and growth kinetics (8 hours): Introduction. Microbial growth in closed environments (Batch culture). Microbial growth in open environments (Chemostat growth kinetics).
5. Microbial cultivation (2 hours): Direct and indirect measurements of microbial population.
6. Microbial growth control - Impact of physicochemical factors on microbial growth (4 hours): Effect of temperature on growth. Effect of high and low pH on growth. Osmotic effects on microbial growth.
7. Microorganisms and environment - Biogeochemical cycles of elements (6 hours): Symbiotic relations between microorganisms. Rhizoshpere. Mycorrhizae. Nitrogen Fixation. Pathogenic microorganisms. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen cycles. Nitrogen cycle. Sulphur cycle, iron and other elements cycles.
8. Microbial diversity (4 hours): Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotic organisms: microbial taxonomy and phylogeny. Prokaryotic organisms. Eukaryotic organisms. Biodiversity and new information on microbial ecology.

1. Microbiological Media - Aseptic methods - Sterilization methods.
2. Inoculum - methods of inoculation.
3. Pure culture techniques (streak plate, pour plate, isolating a bacterial culture).
4. Estimation of the measurement parameters of microbial population.
5. Microbial growth in batch culture.
6. Effect of temperature and pH on microbial growth.
7. Examination of microbial growth - antimicrobial agents.
8. Determination of the metabolic activity of the soil microbial population - Specific phosphatase activity.
9. Soil microbiology: nitrogen cycle.
10. Food microbiology: qualitive and quantitive examination of bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk.
11. Identification of bacteria and yeasts.
12. Identification of filamentous fungi.


Lecturers: Amalia D. Karagouni, Associate Professor (coordinator), George Diallinas, Assistant Professor, Dimitris G. Xatzinikolaou, Lecturer

The mark of the practical examination contributes 30% to the final mark and the grade of the theory examination contributes 70%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3


  • Introduction- Overview of the immune system- Innate immunity, Adaptive immunity (3 hours)

  • Cells and organs of the immune system (2 hours)

  • Antigens (1 hour)

  • Antibodies: Structure and function, hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies (3 hours)

  • Antigen-antibody interactions: Principles and Applications (1 hour)

  • Major Histocompatibility Complex (1 hour)

  • Antigen processing and presentation (2 hours)

  • T-cell receptor (2 hours)

  • T-cell maturation, activation and differentiation (2 hours)

  • B-cell generation, activation and differentiation (3 hours)

  • Cytokines (1 hour)

  • The complement system (2 hours)

  • Cell-mediated effector responses (2 hours)

  • Leukocyte migration and inflammation (2 hours)

  • Hypersensitive responses (2 hours)

  • Immune response to infectious diseases (1 hour)

  • AIDS and other immunodeficiences (3 hours)

  • Autoimmunity (2 hours)

  • Transplantation Immunology (1 hour)

  • Cancer and the immune system (2 hours)

  • Experimental systems (1 hour)

1. Lymphoid organs and cells of the mammalian immune system. 2. Purification and characterization of immunoglobulins. 3. Isolation and identification of immune cells. 4. Immunoprecipitation. 5. Immunodiffusion-Immunofixation. 6. Immunoelectrophoresis. 7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 8. In vitro cell toxicity assay. 9. Hemagglutination. 10. Hemaplaque assay. 11. Flow cytometry. 12. Western blot analysis. 13. Mixed-lympholyte reaction. 14. Radioimmunoassay.

Lecturers: C. Gaitanaki, Associate Professor, S. Efthimiopoulos Associate Professor, P. Papazafiri Assistant Professor, R. Tsitsilonis Assistant Professor.

The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 20% to the final mark. Passing marks (5/10) in both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 2

1. Introduction (2 h): Fine structure of the plant cell. patterns of plant cell organization, evolution, divergences during evolution. Methods for the study of the structure and function of the plant cell.
2. External surface of the plant cell (6 h): a) Biogenesis, physical and chemical properties of the cell wall during growth and differentiation. b) Plasmalemma. c) Specialized cell wall -plasmalemma complexes, plasmodesmata.
3. Plant cytoskeleton (6 h): a) Occurrence, structure, chemical composition, molecular structure, polymerization, organization and function of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Other cytoskeletal proteins.
4. Plastids (6 h): a) Chloroplasts (architecture, fine structure, molecular organization, origin and function of thylakoids, distribution of photosystems, plastid DNA, plastid ribosomes, chloroplasts of C4 plants, algal chloroplasts). b) Autonomy, duplication and origin of plastids.
5. Microbodies (2 h): Structure, chemical composition, origin, development, functions.
6. Vacuoles (2 h): Organization, origin, development, functions.
7. Endomembrane system (4 h): Organization, origin, function.
8. Mitotic apparatus (6 h): Organization and evolution of the mitotic apparatus in plants. Mechanisms of chromosome movement.
9. Cytokinetic apparatus (3 h): Organization and evolution of cytokinetic apparatus, determination of the division site.
10. Polarity. Tip growing cells (2 h).

1. Organization of meristematic plant cells.
2. Organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants.
3. Organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in lower plants.
4. Organization of the mitotic and cytokinetic apparatus in higher plants.
5. Organization of the mitotic and cytokinetic apparatus in lower plants.

            In the above practicals electron microscopy is used.

Lecturers:        B. Galatis
P. Apostolakos
C. Katsaros

The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 30% to the final mark. Passing marks in both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4


Lecture Contents
DNA Damage: Mechanisms of spontaneous mutation, role of DNA polymerases, depurination and depyrimidination, and environmental mutagenic agents.
Molecular mechanisms of DNA Repair: Detoxification of chemical mutagenic agents, photo-repair, repair of mutations produced by alkylating agents, role of glycosylases, role of AP endonucleases, excision mechanisms, post-replication repair, repair through genetic recombination, SOS-repair system.
Transposable Elements: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposable elements, molecular mechanisms of Tn transposition, replication mechanisms, regulation mechanisms, Tn5-Tn10-Mu as prokaryotic examples, corn-drosophila transposons as eukaryotic examples, retroviruses and retrotransposons, LINE and SHINE sequences.
Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Methods of detection, maternal effects, genome organization and gene function of chloroplast DNA, genome organization and gene function of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mapping of circular eukaryotic replicons, mtDNA in population studies, diagnosis and molecular phylogenesis, endosymbiosis theories.
Transformation: Kinetics of bacterial transformation, cell competence, the fate of transformed DNA, molecular mechanisms of transformation, fungal transformation, genetic mapping via transformation.
Bacterial conjugation: Conjugation in E. coli, the paradigm and history of F plasmid, F+, F-, F' and Hfr strains, molecular mechanisms of DNA transfer via conjugation, structural and functional properties of plasmids, role of IS elements, copy number control and partition, mechanisms of plasmid incompatibility, catabolic plasmids, R- plasmids, helped conjugation, molecular mechanisms of repression and de-repression, strain construction.
Transduction: Types of transducing phages, generalised transduction, abortive transduction, specialised transduction, the paradigm of ë phage, genetic organization and gene function of ë phage genome, constructing ëd and ëdgal strains, role of helper phages, the genetic basis of lysogeny, molecular mechanisms controlling the lytic and lysogenic cycles, the role of phages in gene inactivation and strain construction.
Genetic Engineering: Total DNA isolation from prokaryotes and eukaryotes - plasmid, phage and viral DNA isolation. DNA mechanical or enzymatic shearing - use of restriction / modification enzymes. Molecular cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors - cell transformation with the recombinant DNA. Genomic or cDNA library construction, ways to find specific genes. Further analysis of recombinant or total genomic DNA: restriction analysis and mapping, hybridization, sequencing and PCR. Recombinant DNA technology applications in gene expression studies, directed mutagenesis, gene replacement and therapy, molecular diagnostics, protein overexpression and transgenic technology.

Lecturers: M.A. Typas (course co-ordinator), K. Komitopoulou, K.M. Pappas


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3


  • History of Genetics (2 hours): Mendelism, Chromosomal theory of inheritance.

  • Human reproductive system (4 hours): Oogenesis. Spermatogenesis. Meiosis. Hormonal regulation.

  • Cytogenetics (9 hours): Normal karyotype. Chromosomal aberrations. Chimerism.

  • Genetic variability (3 hours): Genetic polymorphisms and mutations.

  • Hemoglobin and Hemoglobinopathies (4 hours): Normal hemoglobins. Various types of hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemia.

  • Biochemical Genetics (3 hours): Inborn errors of metabolism. Errors of amino acids, carbohydrate, lipoproteins and organic acids metabolism.

  • Pharmacogenetics (2 hours): Genetics of drugs metabolism.

  • Cancer Genetics (4 hours): Oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Familial cancer.

  • Genetic counseling and Prenatal diagnosis (3 hours): Genetic counseling. Prenatal diagnosis. Techniques of embryonic samples.

  • Assisted Reproduction (2 hours): In Vitro fertilization. Immunology of infertility.

  • Gene therapy (3 hours): Genetic disorders and possibility of genetic therapy. Types of genetic therapy. Systems of gene transfer.


  1. Karyotype analysis

  2. Hematopoiesis

  3. Hemoglobin electrophoresis

  4. DNA isolation

  5. Mutations and polymorphisms

Lecturers: V. Aleporou-Marinou Assoc. Professor, P. Kollia Ass. Professor

The mark of the practical work contributes 25% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 75%. Passing marks in both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 3
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 2  b) Practicals 3


  • Introduction: Diversity of aquatic ecosystems. Introduction to the Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic microorganisms and Plants in aquatic environment.                                          (3 hours)

  • Cyanophyta (=Cyanobacteria), Prochlorophyta: Morphology, ecology, systematics, phylogeny and characteristic aquatic taxa. Cyanotoxins. Utilization of cyanophytes as food. Biotechnological potential of cyanophytes.                                                                            (3 hours)

  • Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta (Phaeophyceae): Morphology, life cycles, taxonomic characteristics, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories. Representative families, genera and species.                                                      (5 hours)

  • Heterokontophyta, Haptophyta, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta: Morphology, ecology, systematics, phylogeny and characteristic taxa.                                                        (6 hours)

  • Dinophyta: Morphology, ecology, systematics and phylogeny. Characteristic toxic dinoflagellate taxa. Representative genera.                                                                                    (2 hours)

  • Chlorophyta: Morphology, life cycles and types of flagellate cell architecture. Types of mitosis and cytokinesis. Systematics and Ecology of classes: Size, distribution and examples the classes. Utilization of chlorophytes.                                                                             (3 hours)

  • Bryophyta: Morphology, life cycles, taxonomic characteristics, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories. Representative families, genera and species.                                                                                                                                       (1 hour)

  • Pteridophyta:Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characteristics, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories. Representative families, genera and species.                                                                                                                                               (1 hour)

  • Spermatophyta: Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characteristics, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories. Survey of the most important orders. Representative families, genera and species.                                                     (3 hours)

(10 exercises, 3 hours duration each).
1. Collection of microalgae (cyanobacteria) from aquatic habitats e.g. thermal springs. Measurements of abiotic factors. Enrichment cultures in different media (field exercise).
2. Cyanophyta(=Cyanobacteria): Microscopic analysis. Description of key morphological features. Identification of selected cyanobacteria from preserved and cultured material.
3. Chlorophyta I: Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Zygnematophyceae: Microscopic analysis, morphological features and life cycles of selected morphotypes from wild and cultured material.
4. Rhodophyta, Heterocontophyta (Phaeophyceae): Microscopic analysis, morphological features and life cycles of selected morphotypes from wild and cultured material.
5-6. Heterocontophyta (Bacillariophyceae): Cleaning and mounting of diatom slides. Detailed morphological analysis and taxonomy of characteristic genera.
7. Chlorophyta II: Ulvophyceae, Cladophorophyceae, Bryopsidophyceae, Dasycladophyceae. Observation under the light microscope of the principal morphological features and life cycle stages. Taxonomy of representative genera.
8. Dinophyta: Observation under the light microscope of the principal morphological features. Taxonomy of representative genera.
9-10. Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta-Angiospermae: Observation of morphological characters and identification of some representative aquatic plants which belong to different families.

Lecturers: Ass. Prof. A. Pantazidou, Ass. Prof. B. Montesanto, Ass. Prof. D.B. Danielidis, Lecturer J. Bitis

Laboratory marks account for 40% of the final mark. The laboratory mark is the result of independent practical examination and submission of field and lab reports. Passing marks (5 or higher) in both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3

Introduction (2 hrs)
Fungi (15 hrs)
Morphology, reproduction and phylogeny of Fungi. Principles of fungal taxonomy. Introduction to the main fungal groups (morphological characters, methods of reproduction, life-cycles, representative genera, phylogeny, ecology, applications).
Lichens (2 hrs)
Morphology, reproduction, phylogeny, ecology.
Bryophyta, Pteridophyta (4 hrs)
Bryophytes and Pteridophytes in the kingdom of Plantae. Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, evolution, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, class, subclass) of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.
Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae - Angiospermae) (16 hrs)
Spermatophytes in the kingdom of Plantae. The main classic and modern taxonomic systems of Spermatophytes. The Engler system. Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, evolution, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, subdivision, class, subclass). Survey of representative families of terrestrial ecosystems (morphological characters, ecology, distribution and practical interest of some genera and species).

1. Myxomycetes, Mastigomycetes 2. Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes 3. Ascomycetes, lichenized Ascomycetes 4. Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes 5. Basidiomycetes 6. Bryophyta, Pteridophyta 7. Gymnospermae 8. Angiospermae (Dicotyledones) 9. Angiospermae (Dicotyledones) 10. Angiospermae (Monocotyledones).

1. Collection, handling and identification of fungal specimens (2-days foray).
2. Collection, preservation and identification of plant material collected in a natural area (1/2 - day foray).
3. Plant observation and study in a Botanical Garden(1/2 - day foray).

Lecturers: E. Kapsanaki-Gotsi Lecturer, Z.Gonou-Zagou Research Fellow.

A student's total mark is composed by 30% of the practical examination, 60% of the theoretical examination and 10% of the oral and written presentation on a selected topic. Each one of the marks has to be passing (equal or higher than 5).

6th Semester


Elective - Credit Units 5

Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4   b) Practicals  3

Introduction: (10 hours)
Goals and branches of Biophysics, Weak interactions and their role in life phenomena, Structure of Η2Ο and its role in the folding and interactions of biomolecules, Principles of Stereochemistry, Conformation-Molecular models- Symmetry, Conformational analysis of biomicro- and macromolecules, Molecular modelling,  Folding of biomacromolecules,  Liquid crystals.

Molecular Biophysics: (26 hours)

  • Protein Architecture:
  • Globular, water-soluble proteins. Amino acid sequence, Secondary structure, Super-secondary structure, Domains, Tertiary structure, Protein-protein interactions
  • Membrane proteins. Hydrophobicity and protein-lipid interactions, Membrane protein structure
    Energy and signal transduction – molecular machines (bacteriorhodopsin, rhodopsin etc.), GPCRs, G-proteins and effectors

  • Fibrous (Structural) proteins.Keratins, Silks, Collagens, etc

  • Biopolymers/Biomaterials, Amyloids-amyloidose

  • Polysaccharides(Chitin, Cellulose)and bipartite fibrous composite protein-polysaccharide systems (e.g cuticle)

  • Theoretical methods for structure prediction of biomicro- and macromolecules - Application
  • Analysis of structure and function of biomolecules and biomolecular complex structures – Principles of methodologies and applications
    X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, laser diffraction,    X-ray crystallography - Applications
    Vibrational spectroscopies (IR and Raman) - Applications
    O.R.D and C.D spectroscopy - Applications
    E.S.R and N.M.R spectroscopy - Applications

Cellular Biophysics: (6 hours)

  • Molecular Recognition (Structure and function of drugs, neurotransmitters, etc.)

  • Biophysics of Sensory systems with emphasis on the Photoreceptor



  1. Use of molecular models – Conformational analysis utilizing molecular models – Polypeptide chains
  2. Conformational analysis of biomicro- and macromolecules utilizing semi-empirical classical energy calculations
  3. Macromolecular Structure and Sequence Databases and analysis tools in the web
  4. Databases for structural classification of proteins (CATH, SCOP, PFAM )
  5. Structural studies of biomacromolecules utilizing molecular graphics programs 
  6. Protein secondary structure prediction
  7. Prediction of structure and topology of transmembrane proteins
  8. Protein crystallization (lysozyme as an example)
  9. Laser-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy: Collection, analysis and interpretation of spectra from biomolecules and biomolecular structures.
  10. X-ray diffraction studies of fibrous biomolecular structures
  11. Laser/Electron diffraction studies of biological structures

Lecturers: Prof. S.J. Hamodrakas, Lecturer V.A. Iconomidou

The grades of the Practicals contribute 30% to the Final grade


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3

A. Lecture Contents

  • Introduction to Clinical Chemistry - Clinical Biochemistry (2 hours): Definitions, up-to-date trends. Safety and hygienic rules in the clinical -biochemical laboratory, particularities, deontology.

  • Basic principles of pathobiochemistry of the urogenital and hepatobiliary systems (4 hours).

  • Enzymes in Clinical Biochemistry (3 hours): Biochemical laboratory tests for cardiac function. Hepatic, biliary and pancreatic enzymes. Kidney and liver function tests.

  • Hormones and their laboratory tests (5 hours): Hormones of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands. Thyroid gland and thyroid function tests. Parathyroid gland and calcium metabolism. Hormones of the gastrointestinal system. Reproductive hormones. Diabetes mellitus.

  • Sampling, maintenance and properties of biological materials (2 hours): Blood collection, types of blood specimens, hemolysis, blood coagulation and anticoagulants. Urine, semen, prostatic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid.

  • Quality control in Clinical Chemistry - Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories (3 hours): Basic principles of Biostatistics. Internal and external quality control, calibration of instruments.

  • Assessment of diagnostic tests (3 hours): Reference values, criteria used for the selection of most suitable diagnostic procedure, basic concepts on Epidemiology, ROC analysis.

  • Analytical Methodologies and automatisms in Clinical Chemistry- Clinical Biochemistry (5 hours): Basic concepts, immunoassays - ELISA, immunohistochemistry. Radioisotopes, safety regulations in laboratories using radioisotopes, rules for handling and disposing solid or liquid radioactive waste. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and Immunoradiometric assays (IRMA). Automatic biochemical analyzers.

  • Introduction to Molecular Diagnostics - Methods (6 hours): Definitions, current applications. Cystic fibrosis, Gaucher's Disease, Muscular dystrophy, hepatitis, AIDS, cytomegalovirus (CMV), basic metabolic diseases. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): variations and applications in molecular diagnosis. Methods of mutation analysis, microarrays.

  • Pathobiochemistry of cancer - tumor biomarkers (4 hours): Introduction and basic concepts. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Diagnostic and prognostic markers for: gynecological tumors, head and neck cancer, leukemia and lymphoma, glioma and sarcoma, gastrointestinal cancer, lung neoplasms, skin cancer, tumors of the urogenital system.


B. Practical Contents
1. Laboratory tests for renal function - Pregnancy tests. General urine examination, creatinine determination, creatinine clearance, immunochromatographic assay for the detection of pregnancy. 2. Dyslipidemia and Laboratory tests: Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL and LDL in serum. Statistical elaboration and analysis of the results. 3. Liver function tests - Laboratory tests for myocardial infarction: Assessment of the enzymatic activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartic aminotransferase and Lactate dehydrogenase in the serum. Statistical analysis of the results. 4, 5. Tumor biomarkers - Introduction to Molecular Diagnostics - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - ROC analysis: Detection of overexpression of the ÅRÂÂ2 oncogene in breast tumors and analysis of the diagnostic value of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer. Seminars on the demonstration of instruments utilized in automated clinical analysis.

Coordinator: Andreas Scorilas, Assist. Professor
Lecturers: Scorilas A, Assist. Professor

The mark  of the practical section of the course accounts for 20% of the final mark. Practical and theory sections of the course are examined together.



Elective - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Pseudo-coloring - 3D (three-dimensional) electron micrographs. Immuno-Electron Microscopy. Cryo-techniques. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Cell cultures. In situ hybridization. TUNEL assay. Analysis of a research article. Literature search and data mining. Preparation, elaboration and presentation of a scientific seminar. (5 hours)

    • BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES - LIPID RAFTS - CAVEOLAE: Formation and functions of lipid rafts. Lipid rafts topology. Pathways of intracellular transport and lipid rafts. Caveolae structure. Morphology and distribution. Formation and functions of caveolae. Caveolins. (2 hours)

    • STRUCTURE, BIOGENESIS AND CONGENITAL DISORDERS OF RED CELL (ERYTHROCYTE) MEMBRANE: Organization of red cell membrane. Major proteins and their genes. Arrangement of membrane and skeleton proteins. Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS), Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE) and Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis (HPP). Low expression alleles. Biogenesis of red cell proteins and abnormalities during biogenesis. Expression of erythroid-specific proteins in other tissues and organelles and non-erythroid pathology. (4 hours)

    • POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION - SORTING - TARGETING OF PROTEINS AND CELLULAR POLARITY: Compartmentalization - Fundamental pathways of protein sorting. “Gated” transport of biomolecules between cytosol and nucleus. Protein transport across membranes. Sorting, transport and protein targeting through a vesicle-mediated process. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Golgi apparatus. Targeting and transport of lysosomal proteins. Protein exocytosis. Transport of molecules from extracellular space and plasma membrane inward to the cell. Mechanisms of vesicles formation and their specific fusion to the target membrane. The pathway of protein degradation in proteasome. (6 hours)

    • NUCLEAR - CYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT, NUCLEAR IMPORT OF PROTEINS: Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC), Structure, organization and functions of Nuclear Pore Complex. Nucleoporins. Signals and receptors of nuclear transport. Karyopherins. Signaling mechanisms of protein transport into the nucleus. Ran cycle. (2 hours)

    • CELLULAR FIBRILS - CYTOSKELETON: Dendritic nucleation of actin. Role of tropomodulin. Actin related - interacting proteins. Gelsolin family in mammals. Cadherin - catenin complexes. smGTPases. Dynamics of microtubules. Katanins - Stathmins. The role of Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs). Centrosomes. Profilin. Plant hormones and cytoskeleton. Cytoplasmic filaments-related diseases. (4 hours)

    • MOLECULAR MOTOR PROTEIN MACHINES: Regulation of interactions between molecular motor proteins - cargo. Skilful molecular motor machines. Structure and function of myosin super-family members. Classification and structure of kinesins. Kinesin shuffling on microtubules. Controlling kinesin activity and function. Dynein structure and function. Regulation of Dynein activity. Dynein shuffling on microtubules. Locomotion of organelles and movement of protein complexes. Transportation of mRNPs. (2 hours)

    • SELF - ASSEMBLY, VIRUSES - PRIONS: Aided (Facilitated)-assembly of proteins. Molecular Chaperones of proteins. Self-assembly of collagen. Aided (Facilitated)-assembly of fibrin. Assembly of supramolecular structures. Directed-assembly of bacterial flagellum. The AIDS virus (HIV). Proteinaceous infection particles: Prions. (2 hours)

    • REGULATORY MECHANISMS OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION: Signal transduction and G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). Receptors bearing Serine - Threonine Kinase activities. TGF-â signal transduction. Smad transcription factors. Signal transduction and Cytokine Receptors. JAK (Just {Janus} Another Kinase) tyrosine kinases and STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) transcription factors. NF-kB signal transduction pathway. Principles of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling. (4 hours)

    • IMPORT OF PROTEINS IN MITOCHONDRIA: Translocation complexes: TOM, TIM23, PAM, TIM22, SAM and export complexes. Targeting systems: amino-terminal pre-sequences for targeting, internal targeting sequences, alternative targeting sequences. Cytoplasmic factors and import of proteins in mitochondria. Contact points. Import of mitochondrial proteins into the mitochondrial compartments. Protein import into the external mitochondrial membrane. Protein import into the internal mitochondrial membrane. Import of proteins harboring an amino-terminal pre-sequence of targeting to mitochondria. Transport of proteins harboring a pre-sequence of targeting to mitochondrial matrix. Variations of mitochondrial protein import pathways. (4 hours)

    • IMPORT OF PROTEINS IN PEROXISOMES: Peroxins (Pexs). Assembly of peroxisome membrane. Signals for peroxisome membrane targeting. Roles of Pex19p and Pex3p in peroxisome membrane assembly. Types of peroxisome membrane proteins. Import of proteins into peroxisome matrix. PTS1 and PTS2 targeting signals - Pex5p and Pex7p receptors. Docking on peroxisome membrane. Translocation through peroxisome membrane. Receptor recycling. Formation of pre-entrance complexes. Peroxisome biogenesis. Peroxisome proliferation and division. (4 hours)

    • CELLULAR ORGANELLES - RELATED DISEASES: Human diseases with mitochondrial origin. Peroxisome-related diseases. Lysosome-related diseases. (2 hours)

    • CLONING OF MODEL ORGANISMS - CELLULAR AGING: Aging of cells. The phenotype of cellular senescence. Hayflick limit and telomerase. Organisms cloning. Techniques for cloning model organisms. Future perspectives - Ethical dilemmas. (4 hours)

    • CELLULAR TRANSFORMATION (NEOPLASIA) - CARCINOGENESIS: Growth characteristics of transformed (neoplastic) cells. Mechanisms promoting cellular transformation. Mutagens. Human Carcinogenesis. Differences between healthy and neoplastic cells. Proteins controlling cell growth and division. Molecular correlation between mortal and immortal cells. (3 hours)

    • PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH (PCD) - APOPTOSIS: Morphology of apoptosis. The role of Caspases in Programmed Cell Death. Intracellular translocation of proteins. The anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2. The participation of Cytochrome-c in Caspase repertoire activation and “Apoptosome” assembly. The role of “neurotrophins”. Deregulation of apoptotic mechanisms in mutated and genetically modified model organisms. (4 hours)



1. Isolation of chromatin - Observation of nucleosomes through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). 2. - 3. Study of membrane proteins through Transmission Electron Microscope, after freeze-fracturing and freeze-etching. 4. Isolation and study of red cell (erythrocyte) sub-membrane proteins. 5. Immuno-histochemical localization of antigenic sites through avidin - biotin technology. 6. Immuno-localization through Transmission Electron Microscope. 7. Cell cultures.

Lecturers: L.H. Margaritis, Professor; S. Koussoulakos, Associate Professor; I.S. Papassideri, Associate Professor; D.J. Stravopodis, Assistant Professor; N. Messini - Nikolaki, Lecturer.

The examination on laboratory exercise material (contributing with a ratio of 30% in the final mark) is carried out during the implementation of each respective exercise, with the exception of exercises 2 and 3, where the written report of electron micrograph analysis and elaboration is also apprized. Seminars can be also recommended and they contribute with a ratio of 50% in the final mark of the course.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4


  • Structure and organisation of eukaryotic DNA (20 hours): Coding potential, c-value paradox. Unique and repeated sequences. Reassociation kinetics of DNA and RNA. Unique and repeated genes. Multigene families. Molecular mechanisms for creation and conservation of organization of DNA sequences and/or genes. Molecular evolutionary mechanisms. The gene families of globins, histones and ribosomal RNA. Satellite DNA. The DNA of mitochondria. Types and structural characteristics of mobile elements.

  • Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Structure and expression of retroviruses (18 hours): Levels of regulation. Regulatory mechanisms. Transcription factors. Expression and regulation of globin genes. Retroviruses, T-lymphotropic viruses, the HIV virus.

  • Transgenic organisms (10 hours): Introduction and expression of cloned eukaryotic genes in bacteria. Applications of genetic engineering in plant organisms. Transgenic animals. Targeted incorporation of foreign genes in the mouse genome. Problems and prospects of recombinant DNA technology.


Coordinator: George C. Rodakis, Assoc. Professor
Lecturers: George C. Rodakis, Assoc. Professor (10 2-hour seminars)
Sonia Tsitilou, Assist. Professor (9 2-hour seminars)
Rena Lecanidou, Assoc. Professor (5 2-hour seminars)


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3

The ascomycetes Saccharomycescerevisiae&Aspergillusnidulans as model microbial systems for the study of eukaryotic cellular processes. Basic principles of gene expression regulation. The role of chromatin in gene expression. Membrane protein trafficking. Genetic approaches in the study of structure-function relationships of membrane proteins. Function and regulation of expression at a post-translational level of membrane transporters. The GCN system of amino acid biosynthesis as a paradigm of translational regulation. Microbial genomics.
1. Aquatic Microbial Ecosystem (4 hours)
The nature of the aquatic ecosystem. Significant microbial populations. The Carbon Cycle. Management of the aquatic ecosystems. Sequestration of nutrition from water, aerobic secondary process of industrial effluents, anaerobic bioreactors. Purification of drinkable water, filtration, microbial analysis. Waterborne diseases. Quality of terrestrial water and domestic processing systems.
2. Terrestrial Microbial Ecosystem (4 hours)
The texture of the terrestrial environment and the contribution of the microorganisms. Important microbial populations. Interaction of soil microorganisms with the atmosphere. Biodegredation. Bioremediation. Microbial parasiticides and their use in agriculture.
3. Atmosphere Microbiology (2 hours)
Techniques of sampling gas samples. Important microbial populations. Origin of the atmosphere microorganisms. Airborne diseases.
4. Methods in Microbial Ecology (2 hours)
Assessment of the microbial parameters and molecular techniques. Model systems of ecophysiological studies. Microcosms.
Pathogenic microorganisms. Diseases control. Methodology of pathogenicity assessment. Antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Historical retrospection, categories (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral), chemical characteristics, methodology of activity assessment, mechanisms of activity. Antibiotics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Toxins.
Food spoilage microorganisms. Food preservation. Foodborne diseases. Microorganisms as food resource, microbiology of fermented foods. Enzymes used in food. New technologies in food industry.

1. Principles in Molecular Cloning.
2. Transformation of competent bacterial cells and selection of recombinant plasmids.
3. Selection of suppressor mutations of Aspergillus nidulans.
4. Transformation of filamentous fungus.
5. Decoding of DNA sequences in silico.
6. Bacterial biodegradation of napthalenium.
7. Standard analysis of water.
8-9. Variations in the observed growth yield: evaluation in batch and continuous cultures.
10. Fermentation of milk to yogurt.
11-12. Dairy industry and beer productive industry: a visit and evaluation of industrial microbiological applications.


Lecturers: Amalia D. Karagouni, Associate Professor (coordinator), George Diallinas, Assistant Professor, Dimitris G. Xatzinikolaou, Lecturer

The mark of the practical examination contributes 30% to the final mark and the grade of the theory examination contributes 70%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3


  • Historical review (3 h): short historical review of the European Aquaculture

  • PART I: Aquaculture, Types and Stages (9 h): definition of aquaculture, significance of the aquaculture, the objective of the modern aquaculture, types and stages of processing in aquaculture, rural programs for coastal aquacultures in the Mediterranean, energy potential of the natural environment

  • PART II: Environmental conditions (9 h): Water - aquatic medium of culture, directives and regulations for the quality of water for aquacultures, marine pollution, marine ecotoxicological experiments for fishes, Pollution - Disturbance - Aquacultures

  • PART III: Production of live feed (6 h): Rotifers - Biology - Culture techniques for Artemia - the role of Artemia in the ecosystem of the saltworks. Feed and growth of mussels in the laboratory

  • PART IV (9 h): case study of an aquaculturing unit. Vertical unit for marine and fresh water production. Common fish diseases

  • PART V: (6 h):Hatcheries (Buildings, equipment, closed and open water systems, biological waste disposal, operational costs)

OBJECTIVE OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS1. Assessment of aquacultures, impact on the marine ecosystem and environmental studies 2. Artemia - live feed - culture 3. Embryology of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax L. 4. Hatcheries 5. Ichthiopathology 6. Environment - Aquacultures 7. Acute toxicity tests 8. Blood characteristics of fish and feeding 9. Culture of Astacus astacus


1.Seminars by experts in the above fields with emphasis on Communal and National funding 2. Seminars by students based on the existing bibliography in the laboratory 3. Study on specific applied subjects arising from the field experiments

1. Saltworks (Theve or Messolonghi) 2. Aquaculturing plants and Auction halls (Evoia) 3. Semi intensive culture of trout and Astacus astacus (Orchomenos) 4. Processing plant (Koropi) 5. Hatchery (Nafpaktos) and shell culture (Itea)

Lecturers: J. Castritsi - Catharios, Ass. Prof.

The Laboratory Experiments participate by 40% in the final mark. In addition, 10% of the mark arises from the other activities (seminars, educational excursions). The mark for the laboratory arises from separate practical examinations.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  3   b) Practicals  3


  • Bioinformatics and Computational Biology  (1 hour)
  • Elements of Computer Science – Computer Applications in Biology (3 hours)
  • Operating Systems (Unix / Windows) – Introduction to PERL (6 hours)
  • Computer networks and their uses (email, telnet, ftp…) - Internet – World Wide Web (www) - Web browsers – Web pages - HTML / XML (2 þρες)
  • Protein and DNA Databases – Specialized Protein and DNA Databases – Annotation problems (2 hours)
  • Protein and Genome Information Resources and Tools  (2 hours)
  • Genome Projects (1 hour)
  • Next level of the genetic code - Protein folding - Protein-protein interactions - Metabolic pathways - Protein assembly and self-assembly (3 hours)
  • Genome Analysis - Difficulties in experimental determination of protein structure and function - Structural Genomics (1 hour)
  • Computational Analysis to bridge the ‘gap'
    • Data Base Management Systems
    • Data Mining
  • Computational analysis of sequences
    • Similarity based Methods (alignment of pairs of sequences - similarity matrices - statistical parameters of alignment similarity - global and local alignment - heuristic methods of alignment (FASTA and ÂLAST algorithms) - multiple sequence alignment - phylogenetic trees) - Searching and finding motifs (3 hours)
    • Empirical methods / A priori methods (2 þñåò)
    • Ìachine Learning Techniques (Neural Networks, Çidden Markov Models etc.) (2 hours)
  • Analysis of DNA sequences (e.g. ÏRFs prediction etc.) (1 hour)
  • Analysis of protein sequences and structures (1 hour)
  • Algorithms for protein secondary structure prediction (1 hour)
  • Finding periodicities in protein and DNA sequences (1 hour)
  • Prediction of transmembrane segments and topology of membrane proteins (1 hour)
  • Fold recognition methods (1 hour)
  • Protein structure comparison and alignment (1 hour)
  • Comparative homology modelling and threading (1 hour)
  • Modelling of protein conformation utilizing molecular mechanics and dynamics (1 hour)
  • Principles and methods of ligand docking to proteins - Drug design (1 hour)
  • Protein - protein docking (1 hour)


  1. Introduction to Windows - Bioinformatics in the web - HTML and web pages – Literature search - Data mining from Biological Databases
  2. Introduction to Unix  (I)
  3. Introduction to Unix  (II)
  4. Protein and Nucleic acid Databases - Specialized Protein and Nucleic acid Databases - Analysis Tools of Nucleic acid and Protein Sequence and Structure Databases
  5. Perl Programming for Biologists - Bioinformatics Applications
  6. Perl Programming for Biologists - Bioinformatics Applications
  7. Perl Programming for Biologists - Bioinformatics Applications
  8. Perl Programming for Biologists - Bioinformatics Applications
  9. BLAST – FASTA -– CLUSTAL – Tools for similarity searches and multiple sequence alignments
  10. Finding motifs and periodicities in Nucleic acid and Protein sequences
  11. Prediction algorithms (Secondary structure, Structure and Topology of membrane proteins, Signal peptide, Subcellular location etc.)  
  12. Analysis of protein-protein interactions, protein networks and biological pathways
  13. Simple applications of Neural networks and HMM’s in Bioinformatics


Lecturers: Prof. S.J. Hamodrakas

The marks of the practicals contribute 50% to the final mark.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3

A. Lecture Contents
Introduction (3 hours). Definition. The components of animal diversity. The measurement of diversity.
Comparative view of the structure and function of animals (10 hours). Differentiation of body plans. Structural and functional adaptations.
The distribution of animals in space and time (11 hours). The distribution of animals in space. Zoogeographical provinces. Endemism. Areas of high diversity and endemism. Island zoogeography. The differentiation of animal diversity in time.
The importance and conservation of animals (6 hours). Threats to animal species. The conservation of animals.
The diversity of the fauna of Greece (6 hours). Species, descriptions, behaviour, geographical distribution, threats, conservation measures.

B. Practical Contents
Comparative study of limbs and movement.
Study of morphological adaptations of insects.
Faunal comparisons, historical biogeography, phylogeography.
Island biogeography.
Case studies of conservation plans of animals in Greece.
Terrestrial arthropods: methods of study and identification of major groups.
Amphibians and reptiles: methods of study, identification and diversity in Greece.
Birds: methods of study, diversity in the Balkans and migration.
Mammals: methods of study, identification of skulls and tracks and analysis of pellets.
Field exercise.

Lecturers: A. Legakis - Ass. Professor, R.M. Tzannetatou-Polymeni - Lecturer


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week: a) lectures 3  b) practicals 3


  • Introduction, aim and historical review ( 2 hours)

  • Comparative study of the nervous system (4 hours): Study of the nervous system of various animal taxa, memory and learning, differences of nervous cells between vertebrates and invertebrates.

  • Sensory physiology (4 hours): Chemoreception, mechanoreception, electroreception, photoreception.

  • Circulatory system (5 hours): Structure, of circulatory system in invertebrates (open) and vertebrates (close).

  • Respiratory system (4 hours): Structure of the respiratory system in various animal taxa, evolution of respiratory systems in vertebrates, adaptations of respiratory systems.

  • Endocrine system (4 hours): Study of Endocrine systems in vertebrates and invertebrates taxa.

  • Osmoregulation and excretion ( 4 hours): The problem of water balance, solution, Excretory systems of various animal taxa.

  • Motor muscle, structure and function (2 hours)

  • Digestion (3 hours)

  • Thermoregulation (3 hours)

  • Energy metabolism (2 hours)

  • Comparative immunology (2 hours)



1. Influence of temperature in the functions of sciatic nerve of frog. 2. Cell Transport Mechanism and Permeability. 3. Bioenergetics-Quantify of ATP, I. 4. Bioenergetics- Quantify of ATP, II. 5. Cardiovascular dynamics and Cardiovascular Physiology (Vertebrates). 6. Mechanisms of maintenance of acidbase balance of the cell. 7. Saturation curve of hemoglobin in vertebrates. 8. Study of the digestion in vertebrates and invertebrates taxa. 9. Hormones and color in the frog. 10. Comparative immunology. 11. Study of metabolic rate. 12. Osmoregulation.

Lecturers: E. Valakos, Assistant Professor; S. Efthimiopoulos, Associate Professor; P. Papazafiri, Assistant Professor; O. Tsitsilonis, Assistant Professor.

The mark of the practical section of the course accounts for 20% of the final mark.

7th Semester


Compulsory - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 5


  • The evolutionary thought (Evolutionary Biology as science - epistemological background - historical flashback - evolutionary theories: Lamarckism, Darwinism, modern evolutionary synthesis (Neo-Darwinism), neutralists, current -molecular- view). (8 hours)

  • From the Big Bang to the Protobiont (creation of the universe, the solar system and the abiotic environment in the primitive Earth - stochastic events and the nature of Natural Selection - the chemical basis of the origin of life: abiotic synthesis of organic substances, abiotic synthesis of polymers and complex molecular aggregates - the RNA world and the transition to the DNA world). (10 hours)

  • First organisms (hypotheses about the protobiont's genome - hypotheses about the origin of the eukaryotic cell - taxonomic levels - how many species are there? - cladistics versus phenetics - elements of evolutionary trees - constructing the universal evolutionary tree, Kingdoms or Domains, the molecular approach - “rooting” the universal tree). (10 hours)

  • Evolutionary time and patterns of life (evolutionary time and evolutionary events - geological divisions, dating methods - stromatolites and fossils - precambrian life - Cambrian explosion - factors affecting the radiation of organisms - “missing links” or “punctuated equilibrium and stasis”? - isolation mechanisms and patterns of speciation, adaptive and non-adaptive radiation - mass extinctions and their consequences - human evolution). (15 hours)

  • Mechanisms of evolution in organismic and molecular level (elements of population genetics, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium - origin of mutations, nucleotide substitutions and the genetic code bias - the concept of the evolutionary divergence and convergence - molecular mechanisms for DNA duplications and deletions, unequal crossing over, slippage of DNA strands, transposition and retrotransposition - sequence convergence via reciprocal and not reciprocal recombination - factors affecting the fate of a new mutation - deterministic and stochastic mathematical models - natural selection - the importance of the “fitness” concept - codominance and overdominance - models and examples of action of natural selection - random genetic drift - probability, time and rate of fixation under stochastic models - estimation of phylogenetic distances). (17 hours)


Coordinator: George C. Rodakis, Assoc. Professor
Lecturers: George C. Rodakis, Assoc. Professor (~70%)
Anastasios Legakis, Assist. Professor (~15%)
Efstratios Valakos, Assist. Professor (~15%)
Sotiris Manolis, Assist. Professor (one 2-hour seminar)


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4



  • Theories of Cellular Differentiation (2 hours).

  • Mechanisms of Differentiation in the unicellular and simple multicellular organisms (4 hours): a) Bacteria -Bacillus subtilis, b) Saccharomyces cerevisiae c) Dictyostelium discoideum.

  • Mechanisms of Cellular Differentiation (16 hours): Stability of DNA in specialized cell types. Rearrangements and amplification of DNA during development. Transcriptional gene regulation in the various cellular types. Post-transcriptional regulation during development (sex-determination in Drosophila). Translation and post-translation regulation during development.

  • Cellular growth and division (8 hours): The stages of cell cycle. Mechanisms of cell cycle regulation in the multicellular organisms. Signal transduction. Apoptosis.

  • Cancer and oncogenes (4 hours).

  • Oogenesis in amphibians and insects. Sex-determination in C. elegans (4 hours).

  • Molecular Biology of fertilization. In vitro fertilization-Transgenic animals (4 hours).

  • Pattern formation in C. elegans, insects, amphibians and mammals (4 hours).

  • Genetic control of pattern formation in Drosophila (6 hours): Maternal effect genes. Segmentation genes. Homeotic genes.

Lecturers:        Aikaterini Komitopoulou, Associate Professor
Sophia Kouyanou-Koutsoukou, Assistant Professor

Seminars on special topics of Development are recommended. The mark of the Seminars accounts for 30% of the final mark.


Elective - Credit Units 3
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 2  b) Practicals 3

1. Introduction, 2. Water as a substance: The characteristics of Water, 3. Rivers and Lakes - Their distribution, origins, and forms, 4. Water Economy: Hydrological cycles. Global water balance, 5. Light in Inland Waters, 6. Fate of Heat, 7. Water movements, 8. Structure and Productivity of Aquatic Ecosystems, 9. Oxygen, 10. Salinity of Inland Waters, 11. The Inorganic Carbon complex, 12. The Nitrogen Cycle, 13. The Phosphorus cycle, 14. Iron, Sulfur, and Silica cycles, 15. Planktonic communities: Algae and Cynobacteria, 16. Planktonic communities: Zooplankton and their interaction with fish, 17. Bacterioplankton, 18. Land-Water interfaces: Larger plants, 19. Land-Water interfaces: Attached microorganisms, littoral algae, and zooplankton, 20. Shallow lakes and ponds, 21. Sediments and microflora, 22. Benthic animals and fish communities, 23. Detritus: Organic carbon cycling and ecosystem metabolism, 24. Past productivity: Paleolimnology, 25. The ontogeny of inland aquatic ecosystems, 26. Inland waters: Understanding is essential for the future.

1. Morphometry of surface waters. The watershed. Selection of sampling sites and methods. 2. Collection of plankton and periphyton in lakes and rivers. Use of hydrobiological instruments. 3. Estimation of primary productivity (oxygen method, 14C method). 4. In situ measurements of major physical and chemical parameters of surface waters (temperature, oxygen, light, pH). 5. Determination of major ion concentrations (P-PO4, N-NO3, N-NO2, N-NH3, Si-SiO2). 6. Qualitative analysis of plankton samples under the light and scanning microscopes. 7. Quantitative analysis of phytoplankton (Utermohl method, etc.). 8. Determination of phytoplankton biomass by chlorophyll estimations. 9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of periphyton. 10. Spermatophytes of the littoral zone. 11. Application of ecological methods for the assessment of water quality (saprobic system, bio-indices, etc.). 12. The invertebrates of the littoral zone and their use as bio-indicators. 13. Methods for the determination of BOD, COD, and TOC in fresh water and waste water.

Lecturers: Prof. A. Economou-Amilli, Ass. Prof. Daniel B. Danielidis, Ass. Prof. Barbara Montesanto, Lecturer J. Bitis.

Laboratory exercises account for 40% of the final mark. The laboratory mark is the result of an independent practical examination (30%) and submission of field and lab reports (70%). Optional seminars are marked independently.


Elective - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 4  b) Practicals 3


A. Lecture Contents

  • Sexual behavior. Reproduction. Physiology of fertilization. Birth control. (2 hours)

  • Current aspects on pattern formation (2 hours)

  • The role of positional information, morphogens and cellular interactions on histogenesis and morphogenesis (2 hours)

  • Cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, histogenesis, organogenesis, in various animal species (10 hours)

  • The role of induction on embryogenesis. Proximate tissue interactions (4 hours)

  • Oncogenes and growth factors (2 hours)

  • Tissue and organ regeneration (3 hours)

  • Autonomous and experimental carcinogenesis (3 hours)

  • Histology. Microscopic anatomy. Histopathology (18 hours). [Organs and methods, review of embryonic development, neural tissue, epithelial tissues, connective tissues, muscle tissues, body systems].

B. Practical Contents

  • 1. Windowing and study of chick embryo, in ovo

  • 2. Intracoelomic transplantation. Limb bud

  • 3,4. Classical histological techniques

  • 5. Mitotic and labeling index

  • 6,7,8,9. Embryonic development of sea urchin, frog, chick, mammal, respectively

  • 10,11,12,13. Microscopic anatomy (study of histological slides)


Lecturers: S. Koussoulakos. Assoc. Professor

The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 20% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 3  b) Practicals 3

Introduction to the marine environment (4 hours)
Plankton and plankton communities (4 hours)
Oceanic nekton (3 hours)
Deep sea biology (4 hours)
Shallow-water subtidal benthic associations (4 hours)
Intertidal ecology (4 hours)
Meiofauna (2 hours)
Estuaries and Salt marshes (4 hours)
Tropical communities (4 hours)
Symbiotic relationships (2 hours)
Human impact on the sea (4 hours)



  1. Sampling methods

  2. Holoplankton I

  3. Holoplankton II

  4. Meroplankton

  5. Nekton

  6. Biometry

  7. Benthic functional groups

  8. Benthos of hard substrata

  9. Benthos of soft substrata

  10. Species of the Mediterranean

Lecturers: A. Nicolaidou, Assoc. Professor (coordinator), G. Verriopoulos, Assoc. Professor, M. Thessalou-Legaki, Assoc. Professor

The mark of the practical work (experiment reports and practical examination) contributes 40% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 60%. Passing marks in both examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 3
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures 2  b) Practicals 3

Lecture Contents

  • Fish Systematics (5 hours). External morphology and systematic characters (to Order level). Internal structure and evolutionary relations of the various systems (excretion system, respiration system, muscular system, digestion system, covering system, skeletal system, hormonal system etc.). External morphology and systematic characters (to Family level).

  • Physiology and Development of Fish (6 hours). Reproduction, sex-determination, gametogenesis, hermaphroditism, and other relative subjects. Fish development (larvae, juveniles, adults). Determination of the growth parameters from the von Bertalanffy equation. Other similar growth models.

  • Fish Population Growth (6 hours). Introduction. Feeding relationships, Lotka-Volterra prey - predator relationships. Growth population cycles. Competition relationships. Energy flow and ecological yield at the higher trophic levels. Exponential and logistic increase of population size, Verhulst-Pearl equation, determination and study of K and r parameter values. Mortality, fishing and natural mortality, determination of Gulland parameters, VPA and Cohort analysis of fish populations.

  • Fish Ecology and Behavior (6 hours). Zoogeography, Factors affecting distribution. Adaptations, Swimming, Color, Feeding, Armature, Reactions to external changes, Communication and interactions, Symbiosis, Parasitism, Shoaling (salmon, eel, bluefin tuna). Tagging techniques.

  • Fisheries and stock management (2 hours). Fishing technology, fishing production and fishing effort. Effects of fishing on stocks and ecosystems. Management.


Practical Contents

1, 2, 3, 4: Classification of the Mediterranean Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, Freshwater Fishes. 5. Morphometry of Osteichthyes. 6. Reproductive biology of Chondrichthyes. 7. Osteichthyes reproduction, ova and larvae. 8. Age estimation methods. 9. Fishes Data bases: Fish-base. 10. Fishery activities, biometry and population analysis. 11, 12: Data elaboration, parameter determination and report preparation.

Educational excursion. Visit to the wholesale Market and sampling.

Lecturers: P. Megalofonou, Ass. Professor.


8th Semester


Elective- Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4   b) Practicals  3

Introduction (2 hours)
What is Ecophysiology - role and importance. Fundamental concepts: adaptation - fitness, strategy - tactics, adaptive mechanisms, natural selection.
The Abiotic Environment of Plants (4 hours)
Solar radiation, adaptive mechanisms in different light environments; temperature, energy balance, soil, inorganic nutrients etc.
Ecophysiology of Seeds and Germination (6 hours)
Reproduction types, the principle of allocation. Reproductive effort. Seeds - properties, size and quantities. Predispersal hazards, masting. Dispersal: curves, factors, dispersal spectrum. Soil and canopy (aerial) seed banks. Dormancy: types, mechanisms of release, ecological role, evolution. Germination: abiotic factors and adaptive mechanisms.
Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis (4 hours)
The functional importance of the diverse photosynthetic pathways of CO2. assimilation. The biochemical, physiological and ecological framework of the photosynthetic types C3, C4 and CAM. Adaptive pros and cons of each type at different habitats.
Ecophysiology of Mineral Nutrition (4 hours)
Introduction. Mineral nutrients in the soil. Factors that affect acquisition of nutrients (abiotic factors: climatic conditions, soil properties. Biotic factors: root morphology, microorganisms in the soil, biological nitrogen fixation, mycorrhizal associations). Plant nutrient use efficiency (plant nutrient concentration, nutrient productivity and mean residence time, nutrient loss from plants).
Life History and Functional Types (2 hours)
Diverse life history strategies. Growth forms, monocarpy - polycarpy, competitors - tolerants - ruderals. Plant functional types and the decisive importance of certain morphological and physiological traits.
Ecophysiology of Sexual Reproduction (4 hours)
Types of sexual reproduction. Costs and benefits. Reproductive systems and fertility programmes. Sexual incompatibility, sex expression, sex determination. Monoecy - dioecy, gene flow during the successive stages of sexual reproduction.
Ecophysiology of Environmental Stress (8 hours)
On the etymology of stress. Water flow in plant species. Water efficiency. Water availability and plant productivity. Salinity stress. High temperature. Low temperature. Plant response to environmental stress. Genes in the field.
Ecophysiological Role of Secondary Metabolites (4 hours)
Introduction. The principal groups of secondary metabolites, the major pathways of their biosynthesis and interrelationships with primary metabolism. Secondary compounds and plant defence (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alkaloids). Defence against abiotic factors (temperature, drought, ultraviolet radiation). Plant responses to abiotic factors. Chemical defence against biotic factors (herbivores, microorganisms). Allelopathy. Role of secondary metabolites in pollination and seed dispersal.
Ecophysiology of Threatened Plants - Conservation Biology (4 hours)
Plant diversity with emphasis on the Greek flora. Rarity, extinction, invasion of alien species. Reproductive biology of rare and threatened species. Management and protection of threatened species. Restoration projects. In situ and ex situ plant conservation.

1. Climate and meteorological data analysis. 2. Instruments and methodology for environment factor monitoring (light and temperature). 3. Postfire regeneration - emergence and survival of seedlings. 4. Regulatory mechanisms of seed germination in the field - soil seed bank. 5. Influence of water and salinity stress on seedling development. 6. Effect of the nutrient solution pH on seedling growth. 7-10. Short research project (4 week-long, student group work, on a specific topic selected from a list of suggested ones).

Lecturers: C.A. Thanos Assoc. Professor, K. Georghiou Assist. Professor, S. Rhizopoulou Assist. Professor, M.S. Meletiou-Christou Lecturer.

The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 50% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 5
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4   b) Practicals  3

  • Lecture Contents

Introduction: Evolution of the Greek landscape in the geological time. Climatology and geology of Greece. Habitat types of Greece. (5 hrs)
The diversity of the terrestrial flora of Greece: Flora and vegetation. Phytogeography of Greece. The structure of the Greek flora. Native and alien flora of Greece. Geoelements. Endemism. Distribution ranges, Chorology. Status, threats and conservation of the Greek flora. Legislation. (8 hrs)
The diversity of the terrestrial fauna of Greece: Zoogeography. Diversity of the Greek fauna. Native and alien species. Endemism. Distribution ranges, Chorology. Status, threats and conservation of the Greek fauna. Legislation. (2 hrs)
The terrestrial environment of Greece in time and space: taxa differentiation in the Greek islands
The Hellenic environment since Meiocene, peculiarities of fauna and flora of the Greek islands and differentiation of characteristic taxa. (8 hrs)
The diversity of the terrestrial ecosystems of Greece
Mediterranean ecosystems (phrygana, maquis, pine forests). Plant adaptations to water stress. Plant productivity. Nutrient pools and nutrient cycling. Consumers. Decomposers. Fire as an ecological factor. Plant and animal diversity in the Mediterranean ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management. (6 hrs)
Mountainous Forests: Coniferous and DeciduousForests. Distribution, structure and function. Plant and animal diversity in the mountain ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management. (3 hrs)
Alpine ecosystems: Distribution, structure and function. Plant and animal diversity in the alpine ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management. (3 hrs)
Ecotones and Coastal ecosystems: Distribution, structure and function. Plant and animal diversity in the coastal ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management. (6 hrs)
Specific issues of Conservation and management: Networks of protected areas. Environmental awareness. Environmental legislation. (2 hrs)

  • Practical Contents

1. Soil moisture and soil water holding capacity (field - laboratory)
2. Soil pH (field - laboratory)
3. Soil organic matter (field - laboratory)
4. Soil texture (field - laboratory)
5. Identification of animal tracks (field - laboratory)
6. Vertical structure of the soil fauna along the soil profile (field & laboratory)
7. Species - area relationship in soil edaphic fauna (field)
8. Bird watching and counting (field)
9. Plant biometrics: I & II tree height measurement, III age measurement (field)
10. Age structure of plant population (field)
11. Species - area relationship in plants: community heterogeneity and species richness (field - laboratory)
12. Plant cover in a community (Domin scale) - habitat heterogeneity (field)
13. Analysis of ecological data - ordination methods (laboratory)
14. Analysis of ecological data: ecological models (laboratory)

Field exercises are performed in an obligatory 3-day trip.

Lecturers: Margarita Arianoutsou - Faragitaki, Assoc. Professor (coordinator); A. Parmakelis, Lecturer.

The reports in the practical exercises contribute to the final mark by 20%. Similarly, the passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises contributes to the final mark by 20%.  Optional seminars organized by the students and presented to the class may provide a credit up to 1 grade.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  3   b) Practicals  3

A. Lecture Contents
Introduction (2 hrs): The history of Biotechnology from ancient times to present.
Use of microorganisms in Biotechnology (4 hrs): Methods for selecting aerobes and anaerobes, growth and biomass production, batch - fed batch - continuous fermentations, productivity, yields, role of physical and environmental factors.
Industrial and Commercial exploitation of microorganisms (3 hrs): Genetic improvement of bacteria and fungi for the production of value added products using traditional non-GMO technologies.
Genetic engineering of microorganisms (5 hrs): Basic principals and techniques of genetic engineering, recombinant DNA and diagnosis, protein engineering.
Fermentation technology (4 hrs): Aerobic - anaerobic fermentations, different types of bioreactors, immobilised cells or enzymes.
Enzyme technology (4 hrs): Industrial enzymes, proteases, lipases, amylases, enzymic biosensors, enzymes used in immuno-diagnosis and disease therapy.
Biotechnology and animals (5 hrs): Use of cell cultures and cell lines, mammalian cell lines, monoclonal antibodies, transgenic animals, gene therapy.
Biotechnology and plants (5 hrs): Tissue cultures, cell cultures, strategies used for the construction of genetically modified and transgenic plants, analysis of transformation methods (physicochemical, biolistic or Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated), applications of transgenic technology, ways to increase safety.
White Biotechnology Products (5 hrs): Products and technologies used in food and drink industry, biofuels and bio-ethanol, fine chemicals, pharmaceutical products.
Social aspects of Biotechnology (2 hrs): Regulations and biosafety, legal and moral aspects, scientific aspects on the safety of biotechnologically produced food-drugs.

B. Practical Contents
1. Improvement of Zymomonas mobilis ethanol productivity. Use of different growth conditions and substrates. 2-5. Molecular cloning: ligation of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors, Escherichia coli transformation with the ligation products, selection of bacterial colonies carrying recombinant plasmid DNA and growth of cultures, culture cell lysis and plasmid DNA preparation and digestion with restriction enzymes, electrophoresis of digestion products and analysis of results. 6. Bioreactors for continuous culture fermentations. Detecting optimum growth conditions. 7. Detection of microorganisms with strong enzyme activities. 8. Plant protoplast formation. 9. Detecting enzyme activities in commercial detergents.

Lecturers: Typas MA (course co-ordinator), Karagouni AD, Pappas KM, Hatzinikolaou D, Vorgias C, Gani-Spyropoulou C, Kouyanou-Koutsoukou S, Aleporou V, Komitopoulou K


The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 25% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.


Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  4

Lecture Contents

  1. Non Enzymatic catalysis

  • t-RNA cleavage by specific metal ions

  • Ribonuclease P

  • Self splicing of RNA

  • Comparison of RNA and proteins as catalyst

  1. Translational control

  1. Regulation of translation

  1. Ribosome

  • Ribosomal RNA

  • Ribosomal proteins

  • Assembly of ribosomal components

  • Peptidyltransferase GTPase

  • Regulation at ribosomal level

  1. mRNA

  • Structure and efficiency of translation

  • Poly (A)

  • Cap

  • Cap binding proteins

  • Degradation of mRNA

  1. Ribonucleases

  1. Proteosome

  1. Initiation factors

  • Structure and function of eIF-2

  • Structure and function of eIF-4

  • Elongation

  • Elongation factors

  • Elongation cycle

  • Regulation at the level of elongation

  • Chaperons-folding

  • Translational regulation by Heme

  • Translational regulation in the heat shock response

  • Heat shock

  • Regulation of protein synthesis elongation by steroid hormone

  • Regulation of feritin biosynthesis

Coordinator: Emmanuel G. Fragoulis, Professor
Lecturers:Fragoulis EG, Professor
Vorgias CE, Assoc. Professor
Vassilacopoulou D, Assist. Professor
Sideris DC, Assist. Professor

Elective - Credit Units 4
Teaching hours per week:  a) Lectures  3   b) Practicals  3


  • Introduction (5 h).

An introduction to flowering plants. Mechanisms in plant development. The role of hormones in molecular plant development. Programmed cell death. The coordination of plant development.

  • Molecular Plant Development Methods (12 h).

Model plants. Obtaining mutants. Forward and reverse genetics. EMS and T-DNA mutagenesis. RNAi and Post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Plant transformation methods. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of mutants. Gene isolation and characterization. Methods for studying gene function. Transgenic plants.

  • Cell-intrinsic and positional information (3 h).

Lineage. Laser ablation of cells in Arabidopsis. Green-white-green periclinal chimeras. Relationship between age and position. Mutations and genes affecting the rate of leaf initiation in Arabidopsis.

  • Embryo development (4 h).

Early events in embryogenesis. Seed development and maturation. Complexity of gene expression in the embryo. Molecular genetics of embryogenesis. Embryo-lethal mutants. Pattern mutants. Apical-basal axis mutants. Radial axis mutants.

  • Shoot development (4 h).

Shoot apical meristem (SAM) organization. Molecular biology and genetics of shoot development. Genes involved in maintaining the proliferative cells in the meristem. Genes that overproduce proliferative cells in the meristem. SAM mutants.

  • Flower development (4 h).

Transition to floral development. Molecular genetic of flower development. Flowering time genes. Meristem identity genes. Floral organ identity genes. The ABC model. Positive regulation of homeotic gene function. Mutants affecting ABC gene function. The role of miRNAs in flower development.

  • Root development (4 h).

Root morphology and development. Root apical meristem (RAM). Molecular biology and genetics of root development. Cell fate and cell lineage analysis. The role of positional information. Mutants affecting RAM organization. Molecular genetics and mutants of root hair development.

  • Plant microbe interactions (3 h).

Legume-Rhizobia symbiotic relationships and Nitrogen fixation. A model system for studying plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level. Emerging knowledge on plant-fungal interactions in the rhizosphere.


  • Stable transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, by using the floral dip method.

  • Selection of transgenic Arabidopsis plants, expressing the kanamycin resistance gene, on MS Km50 plates.

  • Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana leaves.

  • Tissue specific analysis of Arabidopsis plant, expressing the â-glucuronidase marker gene (GUS), by using X-Gluc substrate.

  • Quantitative GUS gene expression analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants by fluorometric enzyme assays.

Lecturers:        K Haralampidis (Lecturer) (85%)
G Diallinas (Assistant Professor) (10%)
CG Spyropoulos (Associate Professor) (5%)

Practicals teached by:             K Haralampidis (Lecturer) (100%)

The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 20% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.